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Forum on Public Policy Online

Vol 2007 No. 2 (spring) (Posted 1 October, 2007)

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Spring 2007: Table of Contents

Education for the future

  • Education vs. Training in the Twenty First Century
    William Brantley Hale
  • Montessori vs. Traditional Education in the Public Sector:  Seeking Appropriate Comparisons of Academic Achievement
    Jane Carol Manner
  • From Bacon to Bush (Vannevar, not G.W.): Common Ground Between Useful Knowledge and Red Brick Institutions
    Elaine Storella
  • Achieving Student Success in a Regional Public Alternative School Setting Through a Consequence-Based Model
    Sue M. Burkholder and Marti Merrit

Migration

  • Globalization and its Effect on National Security
    Anna D. Simmons
  • Barbed Wire Enclosed Spaces and Places:  Elites, Ethnic Tensions and Public Policy
    Carolyn Calloway-Thomas
  • Two Patterns of Migration (Nigeria and the United States): Race, Ethnicity, and the Politics of Immigration
    Emeka Onwubu
  • Transmigration: Encountering “Others” in Today’s Pluralistic Nations
    Peter Michael Gardner
  • Nation-building in an inner-city neighborhood: The importance of knowing your history
    Bernadette Longo, Angela Dawson and Roopa Sukumaran
  • A Global Response to the U.S. Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) and the Annual Trafficking in Person’s report (TIP) of 2006
    Johnny E. McGaha and Nola Theiss
  • From Latin Americans to Latinos: Latin American Immigration in US: the Unwanted Children
    Ana Moraña
  • Postnationalism, Globalization and the “Post-Mexican Condition” in Roger Bartra
    Michael Paul Abeyta
  • Globalization and Migration in the 21st Century: looking back into the future
    Jan Ryan
  • Dominican-American Writers: Hybridity and Ambivalence
    Fernando Valerio-Holguín
  • State and Race in the Brazilian Empire
    Lydia M. Garner

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Vouchers

  • Secular Humanism vs. Religion? The Liberal Democratic Education Tradition and the Battle over Vouchers in the USA
    Todd Alan Price
  • The future of vouchers as educational reform, political strategy, economic solution, and public policy in the United States
    Kathleen Sullivan Brown

 

Science, Religion and Evolution

  • Ethics of Stem-Cell Research: A Framework for Ethical Dialogue Regarding Sources of Conflict
    Francis C. Dane
  • Stumbling Over a Worldview: Understanding the Root and Meaning of the Controversy between Science and Religion
    Joseph Martin
  • Many Types of Creativity are Evolutionary Processes
    Donald B. Pribor
  • From Epistemological Dissension to Purposeful Accommodation: The Pursuit of Truth in Academia in the Light of the Religion and Science Debate
    J. Jerome Prinston
  • A View from the Pew: Religion and Science from a Pastoral Perspective
    Albert J.D. Walsh
  • A Proposed Model for Defining Common Ground between Science and Religion
    Christopher J. Bobkowski
  • The Evolution of Religious Freedom
    James W. Lett
  • The Influence of Politics on Education and Religion:  How Much Is Too Much?
    Gail Lewis and Nikki Schnupp-Harris

 

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Diversity

  • When Minorities are the Majority/ A Challenge to Desegregation, the Challenge for Public Education (Minneapolis, A Case Study)
    William D. Green
  • Diversity: The Windows of Opportunity in Overcoming the Academic Achievement Gap Between African-American and White Students and in Overcoming Racially Discriminatory Myths of African American Students in Public Education
    Vera Ann McLauchlin
  • Supporting Diversity and Internationalization through Transformative Learning Experiences
    Mary Shepard Wong
  • Mobilizing Social Capital for Food Security and Poverty Reduction to overcome Religious and Ethnic Hostility: A Preliminary Community based Approach
    Emmanuel Babatunde and Kelebogile Setiloane
  • The Racist American Eugenics Program: A Crime Against Humanity
    Earnest N. Bracey
  • Relationship between Self-image and Attitudes about Working with Other Races
    Jo Ann Lee and Jill Scott
  •  ‘Speak Our Language…Abide by Our Philosophy’: Language & Cultural Assimilation at a U.S. Midwestern High School
    Edward J. Brantmeier
  • Authoritarianism and Resistance to Diversity in The American South
    Fred Slocum
  • The Patriotic-Pragmatic Argument: A Politically Feasible Case for Affirmative Action
    Lawrence J. Hanks

 

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Child Psychology

  • A Historical Review of Research Findings Regarding the Adjustment of U.S. Children to Divorce
    Audrey R. Kraynak

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Bilingual Education and English as a Second Language

  • Through a cultural lens, darkly: Revelations on adaptability, perspectives, and applications for language teacher education
    Jennifer Eddy
  • Meeting the Demand for TESL/TEFL Teachers:  An Interdisciplinary Approach to Increasing Program Accessibility and Effectiveness
    Catherine A. Smith, Heidi E. Vellenga, Marian Parker and Norman L. Butler
  • Well Facilitated Shoptalk as Democratic Professional Development for Teachers of English Language Learners
    Thomas H. Cunningham and Gary L. Parnell

 

 

Early Childhood Education

  • Early Childhood Education: The Promise, The Challenges
    Joanne Sadler
  • Why Pedagogy Matters: The Importance of Teaching In A Standards-Based Environment
    Susan Entz

 

Women's Rights

  • Internationalizing Women’s Rights: Travel Narratives and Identity Formation
    Jane Wood
  • Your Words Betray and Portray You: The Role of Communication in Fostering Gender Discrimination As Illustrated In “The Book(s)” Of Dennis Rodman
    Jeffrey Dale Hobbs
  • Women’s Quest For Rights:  African Feminist Theory In Fiction
    Helen Chukwuma

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Contents Spring 2007 Edition

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Education for the future

 

 

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Education vs. Training in the Twenty First Century
William Brantley Hale

Abstract
The philosophy of schooling and the pedagogy of schooling over the past two to three centuries has been in a state of constant flux.  As we enter the 21st century, the age old debate between religious education pundits and those who advocate humanistic education rages on.  The debate, then, centers around those who will or should have the right to train the masses, and how the necessary funds to train them will be provided.  Given that the power elite does not want the masses to engage freely in critical or creative thought, they must decide to what degree or level training should take place. This paper will discuss what education is and what it can be.

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Montessori vs. Traditional Education in the Public Sector:  Seeking Appropriate Comparisons of Academic Achievement
Jane Carol Manner


Abstract
Recent years have provided an interest on the part of public school systems regarding Montessori as an educational choice, often as a magnet school option.  "No Child Left Behind" legislation emphasizes the social and learning needs of individual children as well as a national spirit of accountability for academic achievement, and the public sector is making a comprehensive examination of curriculum delivery systems which can provide benefits for all learners in quantifiable ways, most often in the form of standardized test scores which demonstrate improved student achievement.  This study examines the relationship of public Montessori education expressed as Stanford Achievement Test scores in reading and math in comparison with similar scores for students in traditional programs, using a within subjects, matched pairs design of repeated measures over a three year period.  Math scores for the groups were not observed to be significantly different, although, following the initial observation, the Montessori group continued to produce increasingly higher mean scores than the traditional students.  Marginal significance between the groups suggests that the data analysis should continue to elucidate a possible trend toward significance.  Reading scores for the groups demonstrated significant differences, and in the second and third years of the study, Montessori students produced means which consistently outperformed the traditional group.

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From Bacon to Bush (Vannevar, not G.W.): Common Ground Between Useful Knowledge and Red Brick Institutions
Elaine Storella

Abstract
The theory about the power of useful knowledge to improve the human condition was published in Francis Bacon’s Novum organon and his New Atlantis in the seventeenth century.  The connection between useful knowledge and red brick institutions from University College in London to Framingham State College and MIT in Massachusetts began in the nineteenth century and continues to this date.  University College London was founded in 1826.  The useful-knowledge connections across the Atlantic began approximately ten years later with a gift of $10,000 from a New England industrialist and a matching grant from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.  The sum funded the first public teacher training school in the United States.  In 1889, a Boston newspaper headlined “Its Semi-Centennial, the Oldest Normal School in America, Framingham [State College] Thronged with Alumni and Friends.”  That year also marked the loss of a valued member of the faculty, Professor Atkinson from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  
     The Commonwealth had enacted legislation to incorporate MIT in 1861.  Nor was Atkinson the only link between Framingham State College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  There would be others including Vannevar Bush.  After earning his doctorate in engineering at MIT, Bush joined its Electrical Engineering Department.  As a young professor in the 1920s, he built the most powerful computer in the world and co-founded Raytheon Company.  The latter engineered the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s) guidance and navigation system that made it possible for the first man to walk on the Moon and return safely to Earth.  In his 1945 essay “As We May Think”, Bush urged the “men of science” to take up the task of making “more accessible our bewildering store of knowledge.”   His biographer has written that Bush’s words “contained the germ of what would become the Internet.”   In 1970, Framingham State College’s most famous graduate Christa Corrigan McAuliffe received her bachelor’s degree in education.  Sixteen years later, the teacher-astronaut joined her Challenger colleagues on a NASA mission from Earth to the Moon.  The McAuliffe Center for Education and Excellence at FSC is dedicated to her spirit.  Its motto is a quote from the teacher-astronaut:  “I Touch the Future…I Teach.”  For more information, one can link to www.christa.org and follow what MIT’s Vannevar Bush called “associative trails” to connect useful knowledge and red brick institutions
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Achieving Student Success in a Regional Public Alternative School Setting Through a Consequence-Based Model
Sue M. Burkholder and Marti Merrit

Abstract
Genesis Alternative School is a regional, public alternative school setting for middle and high school students from four participating school divisions.  It serves 1 rural county school division and 3 small city school divisions.  Students are placed at Genesis for disciplinary reasons.  Genesis is unique among alternative schools in Virginia because of the nature of it’s therapeutic program (a project director with a school psychology background and a full time clinical psychologist), the variety of outcome options for students (regular education credits, special education diplomas, GED program, cooperative vocational training at a nearby facility, work-release program), and the staff training model (consensus decision-making, extensive psychological staff training).  This program has worked with over 1000 students over the past 10 years with 62 seniors completing their high school experience at Genesis with a high school diploma.  An additional 75 students have earned their GED while enrolled.  This is a dynamic, “in-the-moment” program which directly addresses social decision-making, personal responsibility for choices and consequences, as well as academic preparation for program completion.

 

 

 

 

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Migration

 

 

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Globalization and its Effect on National Security
Anna D. Simmons

Abstract                                
     World migration has been going on for millennia. However, due to the impact of two great World Wars, numerous colonization struggles, civil wars, and geopolitical and ethnic divisions during the 20th century, mass global migration has reached an unprecedented magnitude, facilitated by the ease of movement between Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Latin America, and the Western nations. This vast movement of immigrants into the more industrialized nations has caused a great strain on the economy as well as the national security of the host countries.     The composition of the present mass migration involves migrants whose cultures are more disparate from the host country, even to the extent of imposing a threat to the security of that country.  In order for the national security of a host country to be less jeopardized, its government must focus much more on the human aspects of the immigrant societies: their language, history, culture, religious affiliation norms, family and/or tribal affiliations, as well as the international and internal relations of the country from which the migrants come. The primary purpose of this paper is the explication of the problems posed by this compositional change in global migration, particularly on its effects on National Security.  

 

Barbed Wire Enclosed Spaces and Places:  Elites, Ethnic Tensions and Public Policy
Carolyn Calloway-Thomas

Abstract
When the suburbs of Paris went up in flames in October 2005, the newly erupting crisis focused attention not only on France’s model of immigration, but also on the issue of media coverage and diversity worldwide. Newspapers and other forms of media played a powerful role in crafting citizenly images of young Frenchmen who participated in the unrest.  Using the French banlieues  as a model, this paper examines how elites—the network of journalists and pundits—shaped public perceptions of  participants in the riots through the employment of a common vocabulary.  The goal is to understand how elite discourses work, and by extension, create a new democratic policy that recognizes our common humanity.

Two Patterns of Migration (Nigeria and the United States): Race, Ethnicity, and the Politics of Immigration
Emeka Onwubu

Abstract
The investigation of contemporary patterns of migration undertaken here, assumes a rather limited focus on two modern societies that are at once alike in their heterogeneous configurations, and radically dissimilar in their social composition and orientations.  The one is identified with the so-called “Third World”; the other, with the self-designated “Developed World”, to wit: Nigeria and the United States of America, respectively.  By coincidence, the former is the writer’s country of birth; the latter, his adopted country of citizenship. 
            Two variants are identified for analytical purposes, to wit: internal migration (or what I had designated in an earlier study as the “Igbo Diaspora) in the case of Nigeria; and [initially primarily] seasonal labour migration (in the case of the United States).

 

 

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Transmigration: Encountering “Others” in Today’s Pluralistic Nations
Peter Michael Gardner

Abstract
Transmigrations are especially common in today’s large, populous nations. Review of six recent cases from four continents reveals four things. First, the three main types of transmigration recognized since the mid-twentieth century turn out to be poorly conceived. Secondly, transmigration planning only rarely proves adequate. Third, transmigrants’ encounters with people they view as “others” tend to be difficult for one or both parties. Finally, these difficulties generally remain beyond the purview of international agencies.

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Nation-building in an inner-city neighborhood: The importance of knowing your history
Bernadette Longo, Angela Dawson and Roopa Sukumaran

Abstract
This paper uses the metaphor of nation-building and the ethnographic findings of Cintron’s (1997) work in a Latino/a community to explore and describe cultural situations and tensions in North Minneapolis – a predominately African-American and Hmong immigrant inner-city neighborhood. Cintron’s work describes strategies that disaffected groups of people (often immigrants) use to create opportunities for respect in conditions where they get little or no respect within a mainstream culture. These communities form insular “shadow” nations within that mainstream community, appropriating mainstream icons, language, and culture, but repurposing them to form an alternative social structure. Hobsbawm’s (1990) exploration of how people form nations by first claiming group affiliation further illustrates the power of desire and need in forming these affiliations that can become local political structures. Combined with an understanding of the racial undertones imbedded in the term “nation,” these perspectives on how people create situations of respect in conditions of little or no respect provide insights into how individuals align themselves to build community (or a shadow city-state), and how their amalgamated desires play out on a municipal stage.

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A Global Response to the U.S. Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) and the Annual Trafficking in Person’s report (TIP) of 2006
Johnny E. McGaha and Nola Theiss

Abstract
“Defeating human trafficking is a great moral calling of our time,”Condoleezza Rice, US Secretary of State.  It is estimated that twenty-seven million slaves exist in our world today. The commerce in human beings rivals with drug trafficking and the illegal arms trade for the top criminal activity on the planet and generates billions of dollars per year in revenue, while destroying thousands of lives in the process. This paper discusses the extent of the problem, the US initiatives in the form of major trafficking legislation, annual progress reports, and global responses and ramifications. Case examples are presented.
Introduction
              In this age of growing global independence and democracy, it seems unbelievable that slavery, bondage, and trafficking of human beings could exist at all, much less on the scale that it does. Not only does it exist, but also it appears to be growing at an alarming rate. Due to the clandestine nature of this crime, accurate statistics are hard to obtain, but according to best estimates from several sources, between one and two million people are trafficked worldwide making it the third most lucrative illegal activity in the world behind the narcotics trade and fast approaching the arms trade. Some experts say that it has already surpassed the arms trade.
                The international community has only recently begun to realize the magnitude and intricacy of this problem and its global impact. Today, governments worldwide are experiencing  trafficking as not only a serious human rights issue, but as a major and growing international crime, often mixed with organized crime involvement that requires a coordinated global response.  Over the last ten years, the number of women and children who have been trafficked has multiplied so that that they are on a par with estimates of the number of people enslaved in the 16th and 17th centuries.

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From Latin Americans to Latinos: Latin American Immigration in US: the Unwanted Children
Ana Moraña

Abstract

It is my understanding that Latin American immigrants in the United States, during the contested process of becoming Latinos (US citizens or the offspring of Latin Americans born in US) are for the most part socially portrayed as unwanted, messy children who need to be educated before they can become American citizens.  Whether they can be called subjects of diaspora or just traditional immigrants, they surely produce and generate acts of resistance. 
On one hand, Latin Americans in United States minimize, in general, the appropriation of English as their second language, and consequently, the culture of the metropolis.  This fact makes their ability to function within the limits of the adopted new land obviously difficult.  On the other hand, this situation promotes many acts of symbolic resistance by the establishment (to settle English as the official language; a metallic wall along the Mexican border).  Both examples are symbolic expressions of a society in fear of turning their racial and cultural identity upside down.  
As unwanted children, Latin Americans are seeking economic survival within the unfriendly limits of global markets, challenging borders and rules, while stretching the laws of welfare and education. In the majority of cases they provide cheap and reliable labor.  This situation grows as Latin Americans/Latinos become the largest minority in the United States.
In this article I will explore how globalization, a term that is replacing “modernity” (Monsiváis,  2003, 283), is not only a contradictory process, as Stuart Hall states, due to the co-existence of central and vernacular varieties of the big phenomenon under the name of modernity.  It also houses, in my opinion, a contradiction in itself when it comes to accept the consequences that are growing in its womb. 

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Postnationalism, Globalization and the “Post-Mexican Condition” in Roger Bartra
Michael Paul Abeyta


Abstract
This article discusses the concepts of postnationalism and the “post Mexican condition” in Roger Bartra’s deconstruction of homogeneity in Mexican identity and nationalism. Bartra is a well known Mexican sociologist and anthropologist who bases his analyses of Mexican society on postmodern theory.  His criticism of Mexican intellectuals and their invention of Mexican identity has made him an important figure in cultural studies. In his discussions of ethnicity, Bartra is critical of attempts to assimilate indigenous communities into a national culture, and is also skeptical of the segregation of indigenous communities based on an equivocal notion of multiculturalism following U.S. models. He cites the Zapatista uprising as an example of the decline of nationalist politics and identity.
This article also examines Bartra’s position regarding Mexico’s transition to democracy, in particular his notion of civil society’s role in political legitimation and his opposition to any populist or nationalist movements.  His belief that Mexican society has entered a postnational condition, his postmodern disenchantment, and his distrust of nationalist and populist traditions in Mexico, have shaped his view of the ongoing crises of legitimation. This article compares Bartra’s views to two other prominent intellectuals in Mexico: Néstor García Canclini and Carlos Monsiváis.  This paper concludes that Bartra’s postmodernist standpoint has limited his ability to recognize the negative impacts of globalization and the transnationalization of culture, as well as the rise of the neoliberal state, on Mexico’s democratic transition.

 

Globalization and Migration in the 21st Century: looking back into the future
Jan Ryan

Abstract

Papastergiadis (2000) argues that Globalization has profound implications for the way we understand the dynamics of migration.  The central feature of the new world system has been in scope and complexity.   We need to go beyond globalization as markets, capital, and world-systems and examine the human activity and the agency of men and woman as migrants. This paper will investigate globalization, not just as context, but ask how does migration and migrants affect globalization.  

The twenty first century has witnessed considerable shifts in migration patterns and migrant ‘types’ are  increasingly diversified, coming from differing economic, social and cultural backgrounds.  The historic migrations in response to labour-intensive needs are diminishing, and the skill- related migrations are poised to meet global demands. The mobility of capital appears matched by the mobility of people, and the disparities of wealth are etched in the migratory patterns. The inequalities between nation-states are circumscribed into the migratory systems and ‘race’ and gender  distinctions translate into specific labour market experiences.

There is an increasing feminization of migration. Women now outnumber male immigrants to the major immigration countries of Australia, the United States, and Canada, and this shift is due to the increased migration of women from Asian countries. Yet their position in global migration dialogues has largely been ignored. This paper, through an historical approach, will question, challenge, and re-position the theoretical underpinnings of the dynamics between globalization and migration and in doing so include a new canon that casts the efficacy of women in the dynamics of new migration patterns.

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Dominican-American Writers: Hybridity and Ambivalence
Fernando Valerio-Holguín

Abstract

US-Dominican writers are not newcomers in American literary scene. Many of these writers were born in the US or immigrated as children with their families, but all share the fact of writing in English and publishing in the US, a fact that has disrupted the traditional literary cannon of this country. In the words of  Cuban-American literary critic Gustavo Pérez-Firmat, they have come to form a “hyphenated cultural identity.”
The importance of the Dominican presence in New York manifests itself in literature, which has functioned as a venue for reflecting, in one way or another, on the Dominican or Dominican-American cultural identity. One of the main purposes of this article will be to analyze the representation that Dominican writers in the US make of their culture of origin, and of their adopted country.

State and Race in the Brazilian Empire
Lydia M. Garner

Abstract
The topic of my paper fits well into the “Racialization of the State”, since it analyses the Bragança Dynasty in Brazil and the way they dealt with the problem of race and slavery.  All three of the rulers of the period, 1808-1889, Dom Pedro I, who proclamed Brazilian independence, Dom Pedro II, who began the process of gradual abolition of slavery, and Isabel, the Princess Royal, who abolished slavery, were against slavery.  The first constitution of Brazil given by Dom Pedro I made no mention of slavery or racist laws, but it had an article that declared that all persons born in Brazil were Brazilians; Dom Pedro II ruled with his Council of State that followed the Constitution of 1824 that made no distinction regarding color; and his daugther, Princess Isabel, was against slavery and abolished it in 1888.  Although Dom Pedro I had been born in Portugual, he was raised in Brazil when the Royal Family moved there, where his children were born, and thus, Brazilians and Americans familiar with the culture and society of the country.  Brazil is a miscegenated country to the point that many who might be thought of as colored see themselves as whites, and most accept the concept of Racial Democracy.  But foreign historians, not used to miscegenation, assume that discrimination in Brazil is the same as that of countries that had racist laws, such as South Africa during Apartheid and the racist laws of the United States.  The comparison between the three countries shows that in Brazil the government did not create racial laws as did South Africa and the United States.  Thus, as Anthony W. Marx explain in his study “Making Race and Nation”, racist laws are created by the government.  The racist laws existent in Brazil are those that forbid discrimination.

 

 

 

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Vouchers

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Secular Humanism vs. Religion? The Liberal Democratic Education Tradition and the Battle over Vouchers in the USA
Todd Alan Price

Abstract
Since Mueller vs. Allen (1983), several legal decisions have attempted to clarify what is the appropriate relationship between religion and public education in a democratic society.  During this time, the United States legal system has shifted, moving the historic “establishment clause” away from a strict “separationist” view and toward an “accommodationist” interpretation.
This major philosophical shift correlates with other landmark legal decisions; one finds publicly sponsored vouchers for private and religious schools are constitutional, another argues publicly sponsored for-profit charter schools are permissible. With faith-based initiatives signaling that the trend toward public financing of religious education is emerging as a full-blown wave, under TITLE V-PROMOTING INFORMED PARENTAL CHOICE AND INNOVATIVE PROGRAMS of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA), the federal department of education asserts that publicly sponsored, for-profit supplemental educational services are not only allowable, but need to be encouraged.
Two major legal cases in particular have fueled this legitimization of the notion of ‘school choice,’ the first
concerning vouchers and the second concerning charter schools as public schools:

  • Zelman, Superintendent of Public Instruction of Ohio, et al. v. Simmons-Harris et al. 2002. No. 00-1751.
  • State ex rel. Ohio Congress of Parents & Teachers v. State Bd. of Edn., (2005) 111 Ohio St.3d 568, 2006-Ohio-5512.

Compiling over a seventeen year period a running chronicle of the contested birth of school choice in the United States of America, the author conducted ongoing simultaneous academic and journalistic research into the debate over the legality of, and dawning recognition of, the philosophical shift that has paved the way for acceptance of, education privatization, or more accurately termed, the corporatization of American education.
Prior scholarly work has provided a rich tapestry of the conflict over values in education, values considered secular and values seen as religious. These values debates come to a head with the emergence of the vouchers phenomenon and the campaign to validate the superiority of privatized “choice” schooling on religious grounds.
So how does the history of these debates over values in education relate to current voucher battles?
Throughout this essay, the author will consider: is the historic conflict of secular humanism vs. religion really the engine that is driving the battle over vouchers and school choice today? What will be argued, in fact, is the obverse, that America’s venerable secular educational philosophy is being undermined, not so much by the new religious evangelicalism as by free market economics, as the author proposes to show in the form of a personal narrative relating his own (eighteen year) journey as a ubiquitous eyewitness to and video documentarist of the battle over vouchers, the emergence of charter schools as public schools, and the expansion of ‘school choice’ under NCLBA.

 

The future of vouchers as educational reform, political strategy, economic solution, and public policy in the United States
Kathleen Sullivan Brown

Abstract
 This paper examines the burden of vouchers to be all things to all constituencies.  Proponents and opponents envision vouchers as accomplishing many objectives.  To some, vouchers represent an educational reform that brings change to public schools and saves children from monopolistic bureaucrats.  To others, they signify a threat to the very foundations of democratic schools.  Vouchers also symbolize a political strategy that appeals to odd bedfellows, both conservative and liberal.  Friedman’s original notion of vouchers construed them as an economic solution, a fundamental market technique to introduce competition and increase quality.  Finally, vouchers create an illusion of a quick and easy public policy for school reform.
                Persistent controversy surrounding vouchers in the U.S. and the difficulty of measuring their impact in policy research stem, in part, from these multiple roles that vouchers play in the minds of adherents and adversaries.  Research data, court rulings, media reports, and proposed legislation are used to consider the many ways in which vouchers have evolved into this hydra of public policy.  Further, the paper will identify limitations for the usefulness of vouchers in the future of U.S. public education.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Science, Religion and Evolution

 

 

 

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Ethics of Stem-Cell Research: A Framework for Ethical Dialogue Regarding Sources of Conflict
Francis C. Dane

Abstract
A framework for dialogue concerning stem-cell research is presented. Based on the ethical principles that are applied to all research involving human subjects--respect for persons and their autonomy, beneficence and nonmaleficence, justice, trust, and fidelity and scientific integrity—the framework is used to argue that we must move beyond single-issue discussions in order to avoid including stem-cell research in the list of topics for which attitudinal positions have become too polarized to enable rational discussion. Neither a favorable nor unfavorable position toward stem-cell research is adopted; instead, an effort has been made to present the ethical issues to be considered as individuals, separately or collectively, work toward attaining an informed, rational position on the ethics of stem-cell research.

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Stumbling Over a Worldview: Understanding the Root and Meaning of the Controversy between Science and Religion
Joseph Martin

Abstract
It has been presupposed that the origin of the controversy between science and religion began with CharlesDarwin’s publication of The Origin of Species (1859) and later with his second publication, The Descent of Man (1871).  But, in truth, the real origin of the controversy between science and religion, particularly in Western Christianity, began with the speculation that the planet earth was in a heliocentric system as developed by Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543) rather than the conceived geocentric view that was held by the Roman Church of that day.  Ancient Greeks had already presupposed such an arrangement of the planets but Copernicus elaborately developed that system of thought.  Others followed up on the Copernican model through scientific observation until Galileo Galilee, (1564-1642) applying the telescope to the study of the heavens, offered the truth of the Copernican theory by scientific method modeled after that of Sir Frances Bacon. In his Dialogue of 1632, Galileo offered his explication of the heliocentric formation of the solar system only to be met with fierce ecclesiastical resistance, to the end that Pope Urban humiliated Galileo and forced him to recant his work under inquisition in 1633.  Thus was the birth of a long distrust between religion and science, each suspicious of the motives and directions of the other.  And yet, who, even among the most religious would consider the Bible as a science book?  It speaks nothing of a geocentric formation of our solar system; consequently, the Church’s dispute with Galileo was senseless in its cause but profound in its effects.
Charles Darwin and his writings on the origins of species by evolutionary means including his ideas of the evolution of humankind (1871) as a species was the next watershed of debate between science and religion that rages to this moment in public school systems, churches, government offices and scientific research laboratories.  But, unlike the Bible’s silence on the geocentric construction of the solar system, the Bible does have something to say regarding the origins of humankind, the earth and the cosmos for that matter, as well as the One who both created and rules such a universe which raises profound religious, moral, educational, sociological as well as scientific implications that cannot be ignored by either faction in the controversy.  Hence, there must be a reconnection between the disciplines of theology and science for the purposes of dialogue and understanding, especially in the area of public education and policy.

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Many Types of Creativity are Evolutionary Processes
Donald B. Pribor

Abstract
Systems chaos theory poses the circular paradox of self-organization.  In resolving this paradox an abstract law of science (a cybernetic version of the second law of thermodynamics) implies that self-organization is an evolutionary process defined by three characteristics: (1) order, chaos, hierarchal new order process (2) that is achieved by trial-and-error selection of it (3) by possible, stable collaborations intrinsic to a particular environment.  The many types of creativity that have these three features include: scientific constructivism – the core idea of the Enlightenment – narrative constructivism that uses subjective understanding of metaphorical concepts and is appropriate virtually to all disciplines including science, artistic creativity – such as poetry, music, painting, literature, dance – psychological transformations – such as stages of individuation from childhood to adulthood and transcending stress – and spiritual/religious conversions as exemplified by recovering addicts in alcoholic anonymous (AA) and Evangelical, born-again Christians.  The anguish and suffering one may experience during the chaos phase of a human self-conscious evolutionary process may require and therefore lead to Faith in an ultimate SOURCE specified as a Higher Power by AA, Christ, God the Father of Judaism, Allah, Emptiness of Buddhism, or other.  Understanding evolutionary creativity as connecting science, humanities, art, spirituality and religion could transform high school and college education.

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From Epistemological Dissension to Purposeful Accommodation: The Pursuit of Truth in Academia in the Light of the Religion and Science Debate
J. Jerome Prinston

Abstract
Beliefs based on personal presuppositions and perception of reality drive everything: from science to religion, through politics and the economy. Beliefs are shaped by a complex system of overlapping and revolving factors. The interpretation of the scientific data always involves the scientist’s personal presuppositions; likewise, interpreting religious texts, traditions and experiences is always influenced by the faithful’s personal life-stories and presuppositions. This complex interaction between personal belief systems and all human endeavors results in a major conflict of interpretation and makes the pursuit of truth a very complex undertaking.
Science and religion differ in their epistemological claims and assumptions, but they, with all other academic disciplines, are united around one common purpose: The pursuit of truth. Academia is the only institution where all methods of knowing are accommodated into a culturally responsible structure providing a multiplicity of angles from which a vision of truth can be obtained. However, proponents of scientific naturalism and religious extremism have tried to reduce the university into a tool subservient to a single method of knowing. This paper examines the epistemological dissension between science and religion and argues for the absolute necessity for both science and religion to uphold Academia’s fundamental mission of pursuing truth in all its dimensions and complexities.

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A View from the Pew: Religion and Science from a Pastoral Perspective
Albert J.D. Walsh

Abstract
The following essay explores the proposals of a theologian, philosophical ethicist, and renowned scientist in order to glean from their respective contributions elements of a recommendation for one way in which the local pastor, as theologian in residence, can best prepare him or her self for engagement in the ongoing dialog and debate between Christian religion and the scientific community in its variegated areas of exploration and experimentation.
The purpose for such preparation on the part of the pastor is to assure a well-thought-out and reasoned position on issues critical to this conversation, while at the same time assuring a healthy respect for the complexity of related issues and the wealth of wisdom evident in both the more traditional and contemporary explications of Christian doctrine.  In the current environment where there is often more heat than there is light, the pastor has an opportunity to reach-out and to shape the understanding and point-of-view of congregants regarding the issues faced, while at the same time deepening respect for the separate yet equally important worldviews.  This proposal is intended to defuse much of the heated debate, exaggerated accusations, and distortion of fact evident in the debate over evolution vs. creationism, or in its more contemporary form, intelligent design, so the pastor can provide congregants with a far more balanced perspective on the salient issues at hand
.

 

A Proposed Model for Defining Common Ground between Science and Religion
Christopher J. Bobkowski

Abstract
The discord between science and religion began to escalate in Europe and North America in the late 18th century when geological discoveries seemed to indicate that the Earth was much older than suggested by the Bible.  When Charles Darwin published his theory of evolution by natural selection and his beliefs the descent of man, many advocates of conservative religious viewpoints found his ideas in direct conflict with the Creation account according to the Book of Genesis.  This controversy continues today as a culture war in the mass media, and what is being presented is not merely a contrasting set of intellectual beliefs, but rather a clash of competing worldviews, the larger interpretative blueprints through which ultimate meaning is made out of the details of life and the world.
Traditionally speaking, members of the scientific community have held themselves and their pursuits to a strictly naturalistic worldview.  Conversely, members of the religious community of thought have embraced a more supernatural framework.  This paper will seek to explore both the Scientific and religious worldviews and establish an integrated Reality Matrix Model useful in both revealing and utilizing the common ground that does exist between scientific knowledge and religious thought.

The Evolution of Religious Freedom
James W. Lett

Abstract
Since the late 18th century, liberal democratic states have considered freedom of religion to be a fundamental human right, and today the principle is prevalent in law and practice in the Western world. However, faith-based religion poses one of the gravest threats to the stability and security of secular nations. Given that faith-based religious beliefs (such as those espoused by Christianity and Islam) are unquestionably delusional, and that they frequently threaten or undermine individual liberty and social justice, it is remarkable that secular democracies accord those beliefs so much respect and forbearance. Faith-based religious beliefs are not only intellectually disreputable and morally problematic, however—they also have enormous potential for death and destruction, because they frequently inspire terrorist violence and sectarian enmity. National policies concerning the exercise of religion should be based upon a forthright recognition of the irrationality, intolerance, and immorality inherent in faith-based approaches to knowledge and belief. If secular nations are to survive and flourish in the 21st century, freedom of religion must be replaced by the fundamental human right to freedom from religion.

The Influence of Politics on Education and Religion:  How Much Is Too Much?
Gail Lewis and Nikki Schnupp-Harris

Abstract
Separation of church and state is fundamental to the democracy upon which America is founded. Today, however, politics, religion, and education have become entwined in a dance that is sometimes exhilarating, sometimes difficult to follow.  Religious extremism has moved front and center in this new century and threatens both political and educational institutions.  Furthermore, public education has received mostly failing marks from those in politics and the church.  Education’s role in a democracy is to train citizens who are active and informed voters and who understand that free exercise of religion is guaranteed by the constitution, with tolerance and respect for diversity critical to that guarantee. Indeed, if public education ignores the moral void left by the secularization of schools, not only youth but democracy itself will suffer.

Boundaries must be drawn around the intersections—magnifying the benefits of their partnerships and minimizing the disadvantages that can arise when religion and education are unmindfully combined. As laboratories for these issues, vouchers, charter schools, and other special solutions provide benefits as well as disadvantages.  These characteristics are examined in this paper, along with a set of standards that may be helpful in distinguishing politicization from partnership.

 

 

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Diversity

 

 

 

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When Minorities are the Majority/ A Challenge to Desegregation, the Challenge for Public Education (Minneapolis, A Case Study)
William D. Green

Abstract
          Fifty years after the U.S. Supreme Court held in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional the children in America’s urban school districts attend schools that predominantly are racial-isolated.    In Minneapolis, the student profile is in stark contrast with the racial demographic of the city’s residents.   Where 86% of the population is white, 70% of the school children are of color.  Indeed, 31% reside in homes where ninety languages, not including English, are spoken.  Within this context, desegregation, as it is traditionally defined, is as conceptually anachronistic as it is impossible to achieve.  

                This paper examines the assumptions of desegregation and argues that desegregation, as assumed in Brown, can no longer be the conditional precedent to a quality education.   It concludes that where resources are limited, white middle class students are few in number, and government is reluctant to advance the legacy of Earl Warren -- the Chief Justice who delivered the Brown decision -- urban school districts like Minneapolis are challenged to provide a quality education in racial isolation.   Rather than expending resources on achieving racial balance, more investment must be made in providing equitable access to academic opportunity and professional development.                

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Diversity: The Windows of Opportunity in Overcoming the Academic Achievement Gap Between African-American and White Students and in Overcoming Racially Discriminatory Myths of African American Students in Public Education
Vera Ann McLauchlin

Abstract
The Brown v. Board of Education decision of 1954 legally authorized equitable academic conditions and access for African-American students in the United States’ public school systems.  However, in actuality, Brown did not lead to substantial de facto changes in equity and access. The American public education system continues to confront wide disparity in the achievement of African-American students and their White counterparts due to racial discrimination. The disparity, commonly referred to as the academic achievement gap, has also given way to the emergence of racist education myths, such as: a) African-American students innately cannot learn; b) African-American students are incapable of competing academically with their White counterparts; and c) the academic achievement gap between the African-American and White student population is irreducible.  In order to dispel these racially discriminatory myths, a new paradigm shift in public education in America must take place. This paradigm shift includes the immersion of diversity within both curricula and school policy.  Such a shift would transform the predominantly one-culture curricula that is so detrimental to the academic achievement of African-American and other non-White students in an otherwise ethnically and racially diverse student population in the United States.

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Supporting Diversity and Internationalization through Transformative Learning Experiences
Mary Shepard Wong

Abstract

Diversity and internationalization initiatives are priorities on most college campuses due to the need to prepare students to engage in a global workforce. Such initiatives seek to expose students to diverse perspectives and enable them to interact meaningfully with those very different from themselves. Colleges strive to achieve these outcomes by: (a) recruiting, supporting, and valuing underrepresented students and faculty, (b) infusing the curriculum with multicultural perspectives, and (c) providing international exchange programs including study abroad opportunities. Unfortunately, many diversity initiatives and internationalization programs do not engage students in enough direct inter-group contact necessary for mutual understanding of diverse perspectives of complex issues to take place. This paper contends that meaningful change occurs in students when faculty provide a supportive environment with structures that encourage investigation and reflection in conjunction with opportunities for meaningful, sustained, face-to-face interaction among people who are different from one another, whether socially, economically, ethnically, culturally, or ideologically. This provides the opportunity for transformative learning experiences to take place, in which students are able to form new understandings and take action on these changed perspectives. After discussing the challenges campus diversity and internationalization initiatives face and the potential transformative learning experiences have to overcome those challenges, three immersion programs which have found success in promoting change in students’ perspective through prolonged and meaning engagement among and across communities of difference are discussed.

Mobilizing Social Capital for Food Security and Poverty Reduction to overcome Religious and Ethnic Hostility: A Preliminary Community based Approach
Emmanuel Babatunde and Kelebogile Setiloane

Abstract
Ethnic or Religious intolerance in contemporary Nigeria is often a function of the effort to mobilize religion and ethnic rivalry to wrest limited resources that trickle down to the community level.  In the absence of an effective policy to invest Nigerian petroleum resources, accountably, in infrastructures that provide employment and improved quality of life, members of diverse communities socially construct “insider” and “outsider” groups using religion and ethnicity to corner limited resources.  This presentation shows how competing segments of a rural poor community were transformed into a corporate entity that protects the rights of all its constituents.  It uses data collected from a multi-disciplinary micro-credit, small holder poultry grant.  Poultry Specialists at the local Nigerian university, combined effort with an American nutritionist and an American anthropologist to bring practical up-to-date knowledge in micro-credit and poultry care to poor uneducated local community men and women of diverse religions.  The presentation will show how this USAID funded Association Liaison Office grant strengthened the network of relationships in this community , thus assisting poor people to overcome ethnic and religious rivalry through improvement in economic resources and animal source food consumption in the community.

The Racist American Eugenics Program: A Crime Against Humanity
Earnest N. Bracey

Abstract
Mostly European Americans, in our recent past, advanced the perverse idea that the human race could be purified by genetic manipulation, selective breeding and the imposed sterilization of minorities and others in the United States.
     Although their logic and reasoning was flawed, with little scientific basis, white leaders in science, politics, business, journalism, and even American Presidents supported the notion that a gifted race of people could be realized if arranged marriages between white men of wealth and distinction could be interbred with a superior stock of women with beauty and other hereditary qualities.
     Through this process, they also believed that designated “inferior” groups, such as the mentally challenged, the insane, blacks, homosexuals, some criminals, degenerates and the disabled could be eventually cancelled out by sterilization.
     It is little known, but many states in America passed laws that forcibly and involuntarily sterilized hundreds of black women and the poor well into the 1970s.
     It must also be remembered that the German Nazis learned from the American Eugenics Program and used it to support the eradication of Jews, who they considered feeble-minded, during World War II.
     Finally, it must be pointed out that no one who went through forced sterilization has been compensated for this terrible crime against humanity in the United States.

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Relationship between Self-image and Attitudes about Working with Other Races
Jo Ann Lee and Jill Scott

Abstract
The current study examined the relationship between self-image and attitudes about working with Whites and African-Americans.  In a within-subjects design, 60 (40 males; 39 Whites; 21 African-Americans) employees in the aviation and maintenance departments of a large national airport completed questionnaires, indicating Achievement Need, Dominance Need, Self-control, Self-confidence, and attitudes about working with/for Whites and African-Americans.  We hypothesized that Whites with a more favorable self-image would have more positive attitudes regarding working with African-Americans; African-Americans with a more favorable self-image would have more positive attitudes regarding working with Whites; participants’ race would interact with race of the target population.  With attitudes about working with African-Americans the criterion, Self-control was a significant predictor for White participants; Achievement and Self-confidence were significant predictors for African-Americans. Regression analyses predicting attitudes about working with Whites were not significant. We discuss the role of race in the personality—contextual performance relationship.

 ‘Speak Our Language…Abide by Our Philosophy’: Language & Cultural Assimilation at a U.S. Midwestern High School
Edward J. Brantmeier

Abstract
Based on an approximate eight month critical ethnographic action research project at a U.S. Midwestern high school in 2004-2005, this article presents data related to the linguistic ideology and associated cultural assimilationist attitudes and practices at Junction High School.  During an intercultural peace curricula development project, members of a teacher inquiry group identified lack of empathy about non-English language use at school as “non-peaceful” and in need of change.  This article links linguistic normative monitoring practices with cultural assimilationist orientations enacted by several members of the local dominant Euro-American population.  How social inequality and unequal power relationships are reproduced via restrictive practices on how students speak and on what languages they use when speaking in schools are important questions considered. Discussion focuses on the intersection of language, cultural power, and national identity.  Broader ties to conservative ideological movements in the United States that focus on linguistic and cultural assimilation are explored.  

Authoritarianism and Resistance to Diversity in The American South
Fred Slocum

Abstract
The thirteen states of the American South have been historically, and today remain, an epicenter of authoritarian values, best understood today as an insistence on conformity and sameness, and resistance to diversity and difference (Stenner 2005).  This paper documents this pattern by examining historical patterns of group-based domination in the South, based on race, gender, socioeconomic status, union status, sexual orientation, religion, and ethnicity.  The paper then examines past studies providing indirect evidence of higher levels of authoritarianism in the Southern states, and more direct evidence based on the author’s analysis of the 2004 American National Election Study.  Collectively, this research furnishes additional evidence of higher levels of authoritarianism in the South – but somewhat surprisingly, higher levels among blacks than whites, a finding that deserves further study.  Public policy outcomes in the South often express higher levels of authoritarianism.  The partisan implications of the patterns observed here include a likely continuation of Republican dominance, at least in federal elections, in most of the South.

The Patriotic-Pragmatic Argument: A Politically Feasible Case for Affirmative Action
Lawrence J. Hanks

Abstract
This paper examines the major arguments for and against affirmative action as practiced in the U.S.  The arguments are presented, critically analyzed and rebutted.  Ultimately, this paper argues that the best politically feasible argument for affirmative action, the patriotic-pragmatic argument, focuses on empowering the U.S.’s military, educational, and economic institutions. While the traditional arguments for affirmative action focus on abstract zero-sum game scenarios largely based on issues of moral fairness and social justice, the patriotic-pragmatic argument focus on the concrete “win-win” scenarios of safety and national actualization, educational attainment, and economic prosperity

 

 

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Child Psychology

A Historical Review of Research Findings Regarding the Adjustment of U.S. Children to Divorce
Audrey R. Kraynak

Abstrac       
From the 1940s to the late 1960s, approximately 86% of U. S. children were born to married parents and lived with these parents throughout childhood and adolescence. From 1970 to 2000, however, the percentage of children living in two parent families decreased from 86.5% in 1970 to 69.1 % in 2000 (Hernandez 1993; U. S. Bureau of the Census 2006). One of the trends related to the decreased number of children living in two parent families occurred because of changes in the divorce rate. 
In 1960, less than 500,000 U. S. children were affected by divorce while in 1980 close to 1.2 million children had experienced the divorce of their parents.  From 1980 to 1990, the number of U. S. children living in a divorced family decreased from slightly less than 1.2 million to 1 million.  Predications regarding the percentage of American children who will live in a single parent family before reaching the age of eighteen suggested that more than 50% of those born after 1992 would, at some time between their birth and reaching the age of 18, live in a single parent family (McLanahan & Sandefur 1994).  Clearly, divorce is an event affecting a large number of U.S. children.
                Research reported that divorce is a perceived as a highly stressful life event for most adults and children.  Divorce has been identified as a risk factor for children because of the myriad changes that children may experience (Moxnes, 2003). Divorce involves the loss of social and economic capital as a result of the loss of household income, residential mobility and contact with the non-custodial parent (McLanahan and Sandefur 1994).  Changes in the life of the child stemming from divorce produce social stress for the child.  Moreover, the family structure is altered or changed as a result of the divorce.  These losses and changes affect parent-child relationships and interactions.  Moreover, behavioral changes have been identified that have been attributed to the child’s adjustment to divorce.  These behaviors have been measured via the child’s academic achievement, social competence, and emotional behavior. 
This main focus of this article is to report research findings pertaining to children’s adjustment to divorce using a developmental perspective.  Information that is reported will incorporate evidence regarding the personal resources of gender and age and their relationship to the child’s adjustment to divorce.  The variable of age will be divided into five stages, infants and toddlers, preschool-aged children, early as well as late elementary aged children, adolescents, and young adults.  Within each of the five stages, information on the adjustment process is presented with reference to the duration since the parents’ separation.  Duration is divided into the immediate crisis which involves the time period immediately following the separation, the short-term aftermath which can last up to two years post-divorce, and the long-range aftermath which extends from two years post-divorce on (Kalter 1990).

 

 

 

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Bilingual Education and English as a Second Language

 

Through a cultural lens, darkly: Revelations on adaptability, perspectives, and applications for language teacher education
Jennifer Eddy
Abstract
If language acquisition implies understanding of cultural perspectives, practices, and ideas with the ability to respond appropriately and flexibly in varying contexts, then we must see the importance of preparing language teachers for the realities of the profession and the demands of performance based assessment. Language is how we understand ourselves as well as communicate to minds other than our own. Inevitably we tend to view the world through individually constructed and socially imposed cultural lenses. Becoming aware of the presence and impact of these lenses constitutes the first step toward successful and meaningful interaction. Unfortunately most media and textbooks offer scant treatment of clichéd situations and cultural facts in isolation, yielding possible misinterpretations of different cultural groups. Materials for teacher preparation do not begin to explore candidate beliefs, attitudes, or understanding, thus actually reinforcing prejudice and an already myopic view. Furthermore, there is need for curriculum design tools to guide teachers in creating performance based lessons and assessments, which demonstrate learner understanding of cultural perspectives, practices, and products. Examination of research on cross cultural adaptability and perspectives yields various applications for teacher education programs, both for language and literacy courses as well as curriculum and assessment for language learning and teaching.

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Meeting the Demand for TESL/TEFL Teachers:  An Interdisciplinary Approach to Increasing Program Accessibility and Effectiveness
Catherine A. Smith, Heidi E. Vellenga, Marian Parker and Norman L. Butler

Abstract
                This paper assembles innovative ideas from several disciplines and offers an integrated discussion for improving TESL/TEFL curriculum design, specifically for individuals from peripheral social contexts and to address the global demand for ESL/EFL teachers.  Overall, the suggested innovations serve to:  1) increase program accessibility to individuals who might not otherwise pursue professional development and/or continuing education, and 2) enhance instructional effectiveness by including instructional topics and techniques which support novice and nonnative English teachers.  Adjustments to admission practices, instruction practices, and long-term professional support allow the program to reach a greater population of teachers to serve the ever-increasing worldwide demand for English teachers.  A website available prior to, during, and after instruction allows participants to continue research projects, learn about professional development opportunities, and participate in a virtual community of TESL/TEFL professionals, regardless of their current teaching placement environment.  More practically-focused instruction which is delivered via both on-site instruction and DL (distance learning) technology results in more competent teachers completing TESL/TEFL programs.
                The more practically-focused instruction incorporates recent language research and language teaching innovations from applied linguistics, multicultural literature, conflict communication strategies, and educational leadership.  The language research innovations include descriptive grammar, pragmatics, and discourse analysis.  These give teachers a substantially more accurate understanding of English language structures and functions at clause, sentence, and discourse levels.  They provide essential tools to more accurately analyze and thus more effectively teach English in a variety of educational contexts.  The language teaching innovations include participatory language teaching, sheltered language instruction, and authentic assessments) which extend the learning benefits of communicative language teaching (CLT) methods.  These TESL/TEFL methods are incorporated with multicultural literature, conflict communication strategies, and educational leadership to form an interdisciplinary program which provides scaffolded instructional content and techniques which may better serve the needs of TESL/TEFL teacher training program stakeholders.

Well Facilitated Shoptalk as Democratic Professional Development for Teachers of English Language Learners
Thomas H. Cunningham and Gary L. Parnell

Abstract
Democratic professional development is of the teachers, by the teachers, for the teachers. It differs from managerial models, which often have preset agendas and provide what “experts” think teachers need. Managerial models tend to be leader-centered, making some teachers feel treated like “tall children” rather than professionals. Democratic models are participant-centered, fostering collegiality and collaboration. Teachers determine their own needs and construct agendas based on issues of current relevance to them.
One simple yet powerful democratic model of professional development comes from the Great Teachers Movement (GTM). This model has been characterized as “well facilitated shoptalk,” promoting productive discussions and tapping into the collective knowledge, wisdom, creativity, expertise, and genius of participating teachers. This article explains the model so that it can be applied for teachers of English language learners (ELLs). Both authors are active in the GTM, facilitating seminars, retreats, and workshops for teachers of all disciplines and all levels of education. The first author has utilized the model specifically for in-service and pre-service teachers of ELLs. He directed two seminars for in-service public school teachers of English as a foreign language in Nanjing, China. He also uses the model in his pre-service teacher education courses to guide productive discussions about the teaching of English as a second language
.

(The second author of this paper was mistakenly omitted when this paper was published in Forum on Public Policy, Vol 3 No2, 2007: Bilingual Education and English as a Second Language)

 

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Early Childhood Education

Early Childhood Education: The Promise, The Challenges
Joanne Sadler

Abstract
The benefits of high quality early childhood programs have been documented. Good programs engage students in developmentally appropriate practices that include pre-literacy, pre-numeracy activities, language, social and physical development in these preschool programs. Studies have shown that literacy skills such as letter-name recognition, phonological and print awareness affect the reading achievement of children. However, in the rush to provide these skills, preschool programs cannot overlook the important role that culture plays. There is an important place for multicultural education and even an anti-bias curriculum. Several reasons are given for multicultural education from the need to confront the harmful effects of racism, as well as the need to address the poor academic performance of the growing number of children from ethnic groups of color who are entering schools. This paper will outline some of the benefits of pre-school programs and address some of the issues contribute to the development of a high quality early childhood literacy programs that also values culture and diversity.

Why Pedagogy Matters: The Importance of Teaching In A Standards-Based Environment
Susan Entz

Abstract
The goal of the standards movement has been to improve student outcomes for all children regardless of their backgrounds or risk factors.  The focus has primarily been on the instructional, program or performance standards.  Paramount importance has been placed on what children will do to demonstrate that they have learned.  While important, there is another ingredient in achieving positive student outcomes.  What teachers do and how they do it is critically important and has a profound impact on the quality of the educational experience for children.  This paper presents the seminal work of the Center For Research On Education, Diversity and Excellence (CREDE), one of the twelve federally funded research centers on education.  Its findings, summarized in five critical elements of effective pedagogy, demonstrate that when consistently implemented the result is greater student outcomes across the curriculum regardless of age, and higher academic test scores regardless of the student population.   Application in early childhood education settings is also discussed.

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Women's Rights

 

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Internationalizing Women’s Rights: Travel Narratives and Identity Formation
Jane Wood

Abstract

Virginia Woolf once wrote that a woman must have a room of her own as well as money of her own if she was to become a writer. With the advent of “money of her own” for more women in the twentieth and twenty-first century, more women are traveling and finding rooms of their own on an international landscape. Travel narratives by women are increasing in both volume and readership. The narratives typically explore an individual woman’s expanding consciousness as she moves into previously unknown areas of the world. Her experiences, recorded often for her own later reflection, often reveal a growing sense of sense of place in both what is called “home” and in the world at large. A new land or community intensifies these writers’ connection to the mores of their own cultures, and these mores are often either reconsidered or rejected as the writer experiences other ways of being. In particular, the writers scrutinize mores associated with gender, and vow to make changes in the return home.
In many ways, these travel narratives follow the traditional quest of the hero, such as Odysseus; however, these women tend to write from their middle or later years and the travel adventures tend to raise memories that call for activism or change in the present. This paper will examine current travel narratives by women and comment on the call to action for women’s equality within the tex
t.

Your Words Betray and Portray You: The Role of Communication in Fostering Gender Discrimination As Illustrated In “The Book(s)” Of Dennis Rodman
Jeffrey Dale Hobbs

Abstract
Communication plays a significant and pervasive role in fostering gender discrimination and patriarchy. Our language influences how we view and treat people of different genders. This influence can be illustrated by examining the words used in “The Book(s)” of Dennis Rodman. In Bad as I Wanna Be and Walk on the Wild Side, Rodman metaphorically equates his life with the life of Christ—thus, claiming to be God.  As God, he can be as bad as he wants to be to women.  Many men, like Dennis, traditionally tend to view themselves as God and women as their servants.  Telling heroic stories about Dennis is one way of enforcing the patriarchal meta-narratives of our culture.  Thus, heroes may be chosen because they give people permission to live their lives in the way they want to live them—not because they inspire people to live better lives.  When men see themselves as God, they place patriarchal constructions, including concepts of masculine hegemony, on God. Viewing God as man causes religion to be oppressive to women—glaringly exemplified by the rules that forbid women to speak in worship assemblies in many Christian denominations.

Women’s Quest For Rights:  African Feminist Theory In Fiction
Helen Chukwuma

Abstract
 Women’s rights and women’s being have always been taken for granted, nicely and safely tucked away under the bed of patriarchy.  Silence was the virtue of women and passivity their garner, but it was not always so.  Traditional societies in pre-colonial times had spheres of power and influence for women in closely-knit organizations that helped them maintain a voice.  Colonialism has its merits but its new culture of ascendancy through education, white-collar jobs and money-driven economy relegated women down the ladder.
                With women education came exposure and awareness and the inevitable reaction.  Feminism is a reaction; it is an assertion of being, rights and status.  Literature has proved a worthy tool in interrogating the female condition.  The silence was broken by women writers in the mid-sixties in the continent which correspondingly was the era of political independence of quite a number of African States.  The decade, that followed, witnessed shades of feministic writing by African women and has advanced the women’s cause of recognition and relevance.  This paper theorizes women’s writing in Africa and shows how a pattern of women assertion has emerged and has impacted the canon of African Literature.

 

 

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