Forum on Public Policy Online

Vol 2007 No. 3 (summer) (Posted January 2008)

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Summer 2007: Table of Contents

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Ethics and Mistrust of Government Back to top



The Use of Civic Engagement to Build Trust in Governance
William W. Bauser

 This is a time in mankind’s history were cultural wars are predominate and people are frustrated by their inability to change the current status of civic engagement so that they can find good governance.  This paper traces the positions in civic engagement of the cognitivist and non cognitivist and the limitations of each and how these limitations lead to the frustrations of diverse groups and diverse individuals as they civically engage in civil society issues.  This paper finally concludes by advancing a methodology that can be used to build trust back into good governance. 


Breach of Faith: Towards a Political Genealogy of Trust
Michael Clifford

In 1721, Thomas Gordon defined our relation to government quite succinctly, “What is Government, but a Trust committed by All, or the Most, to One, or a Few, who are to attend upon the Affairs of All, that every one may, with the more Security, attend upon his own? A great and honourable Trust; but too seldom honourably executed.”  Today, Britain and the United States find themselves in a crisis of political trust rivaling that of 17th century England, which suffered through the turmoil of civil war, revolution, and even the beheading of Charles 1.  From the old scandal of “rotten boroughs” in Britain to the recent gerrymandering by Tom DeLay in the U.S., not to mention the selling of political influence in both countries, government continues, it appears, to be a trust “too seldom honorably executed.”

Democracy as Trust in Public Discourse
William W. Clohesy

In his Federalist Papers Madison presents a vision of how opinions will be developed into a shared public view in a discourse among constituents and their representatives under the proposed republic in the U. S. Constitution.  A republic requires a public assertive and knowing enough to express itself and officials trustworthy and attentive to the words of the people.  The danger Madison sees is faction: one group overcoming others so as to force their intentions upon citizens rather than join with them in seeking to articulate a common good. 
In the modern era, the role of the public in the discourse and decisions of government is again in question.  Walter Lippmann and John Dewey had a notable argument over the place of the citizen in the formation of public opinion in the 1920s.  As a way into the modern question of discourse I discuss Lippmann and Dewey.  I address Lippmann’s distrust of American democracy because voters—who think in simplistic “stereotypes”—cannot handle complex modern problems.  Lippmann calls for a government of experts to handle modern problems.  I then examine Dewey’s response to Lippmann.  Dewey argues that people create publics when private problems become a matter of wider concern.  Lippmann’s description of citizens indicates they are isolated and stunted intellectually.  Abolishing democracy is no solution, but to regenerate it by bringing citizens back to a public life of active interchange is.  I conclude with comments on the media’s threat to democracy and possible ways of renewing public discourse among citizens who know the role they play and who trust one another as interlocutors.


Losing Trust in Leadership: Philosophical & Theological Factors
Robert M. Ferguson

In western democracies and business communities of the past, leadership was presumed to be trustworthy on the basis of accepted concepts, defined relationships, and a fixed understanding of reality and truth. However, leadership is no longer presumed to be trustworthy on the basis of an ideal. Rather, in the postmodern setting, leadership must be continually establishing its trustworthiness in the context of a progressive “dialogue” with its constituencies, taking into account the key indicators of the postmodern mindset.

In this setting, leadership in the US, UK and Australia is increasingly finding itself in credibility and ethical calamities. Popular explanations for this growing cultural angst have ranged from the skeptical to a variety of rather pessimistic anthropologies. Some skeptics view leadership as always being corrupt. On the other hand, some philosophical and theological anthropologies have asserted the inherent self-centeredness of the human character and psyche.

Trust is no longer an issue determined primarily by presumptions, standards and character. Trust is also molded by human interactions in the context of the postmodern mindset and expectations. This paper identifies and interacts with key indicators of the postmodern mindset that establish points of tension in relation to the leadership discourse that was associated with the invasion of Iraq in 2003 and the continuing conflict in Iraq.

The Role of Virtue in Developing Trustworthiness in Public Officials
Hope K. Fitz

            In this paper, I am concerned to show that trustworthiness in public officials, which I judge to be necessary for trust in government, is made possible by teaching virtues, or more specifically a virtuous way of life, to children in a society.  Furthermore, the individual development of the shared virtues of a society requires the support of those virtues by citizens of that society.  To show how this has worked in the past, I examine Aristotle’s notion of eudaimonia as virtuous activity and how he believed that his theory of virtue would make possible the development of moral members of the polisor city state.  Although Aristotle’s virtue theory was practiced to a great extent in Athens, it cannot be practiced in modern nation states as it only works in small communities. Such is the case because it is based, in large measure, on the different types of friendship which Aristotle described. 
A virtue theory which could work in different nation states involves the ancient belief of ahimsa which originated in Hindu thought over 3,500 years ago and was developed and practiced by Hindus, and later by Jains and Buddhists.  This development culminated in the what can be viewed as the virtue theory of Mahatma Gandhi. As Gandhi understood ahimsa, it meant no (intentional) harm to any living being by thought, word or deed and the greatest love, i.e., compassion for all creatures. Gandhi brought the belief of ahimsa into the social/political arena with his satyagraha, i.e., Truth Force against oppression.  Instead of fighting oppressors with weapons that can harm, Gandhi “fought” with non-cooperation and later civil disobedience, based on ahimsa, as ways to combat his oppressors.  He believed that he could shame the oppressors and eventually convert them to ahimsa. He fought with courage and never let up on an issue of human rights or a quest for peace.  In his engagements, he told his satyagrahis, i.e.,followers of satyagraha, never to harbor anger let alone hatred for one’s oppressors.    With satyagraha, grounded in ahimsa, he won many rights for the Indian people whom he represented in South Africa and he spearheaded the freedom fighters that eventually brought about India’s independence from Great Britain.  




A Crisis in Archetypes:  How Framing U. S. Elections as Heroes versus Villains Promotes Two-Valued Orientation, Encourages Corruption, And Erodes Public Trust
Paulette D. Kilmer

        The deeply embedded lexicon of archetypes within the subconscious provides human beings with frames for interpreting their experiences and attaching meaning to incidents.  When journalists evoke these potent symbols to advance ideology, they promote propaganda at the expense of revealing the truth.  Since democracy depends upon an informed, rational electorate, the decline of a press devoted to unearthing the truth and serving the public threatens civic well-being in the United States.  Traditionally, reporters and editors serve as watchdogs devoted to holding power brokers accountable.  When they play circus mutts eager to entertain or herd dogs trained to prevent the multitude from straying into individual thinking, the public loses its objective window on the world.  The grand public conversation degenerates into a grapevine of invective, gossip, and slander.

Building Stronger Business and Professional Ethical Practices
A survey of research that asks the question: Can we teach ethics to young adults or is it too late?

William J. Lawrence

The question of whether ethics can be taught at all, much less to post-secondary level adults, has haunted philosophers, educators, and scholars for centuries.  Educators and professionals continue to ask this question, and no definitive answer has yet come forth.  Skeptics feel that morality and ethical standards have been well set by adulthood, and, as many great thinkers of the past have stated, virtue, like morality, is not something that can be taught.  Others thinkers, equally qualified, feel that we can teach as well as influence character and behavior and therefore a person's fundamental ethical structure.   It is my intention in this paper to explore both sides of this debate and why it more important than ever before to answer this age old question and to seek conclusions as to how a curriculum containing ethics education can be made more effective and relevant to current professional and business needs.


The Erosion of Ethical Standards in Government: Is What It Takes To Get Elected the Root of the Problem?
Daniel E. Lee

In the United States, campaigns for Congress have become exceedingly expensive, necessitating almost constant fundraising, which often involves pandering to various special-interest groups.  Most successful campaigns for national office depend heavily on television advertising (one of the reasons they are so expensive).  Many of the ads are 30-second attack ads crafted by campaign consultants with few scruples who do not hesitate to distort facts while maligning the opposition.  The result is that many successful candidates are ethically compromised by the time they are elected.  This paper explores various possible solutions to the problem, among them public financing of campaigns and term limits.

Is the U.S. Government's Mining of Commercial Data Contributing to an Erosion of Trust in Government?
Carter Manny

Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the executive branch of the U.S. Government turned to data mining practices for the avowed purpose of protecting public security.  Relying on a combination of legislative authorization and cooperation by the private sector, federal institutions have obtained access to information in commercial databases collected largely from routine business transactions by ordinary people posing no particular threat to public order.  Much of the data mining has occurred without safeguards like prior court authorization and limitations in the Privacy Act of 1974.  In the absence of these safeguards designed to protect individual liberty, data mining appears to have contributed to an erosion of public trust in government.  Government surveillance following September 11, like responses to other crises in U.S. history, is motivated by fear.  While many members of Congress have supported greater restraints on data mining, their efforts tend to be overridden by fear-based justifications for surveillance.

Human Freedoms and Public Corruption around the World: Demonstration of a Curvilinear Relationship
Michael K. McCuddy

Two enduring human concerns throughout the world are (a) the various freedoms enjoyed (or not enjoyed) by citizens of different nations, and (b) the presence or absence of corruption among public officials and politicians of those same countries. This paper explores the relationship between human freedoms and corruption in national public life around the globe.
A common conception of the relationship between human freedoms and corruption is that increasing freedoms create more opportunities for corruption. A competing hypothesis is that freedoms, by providing greater opportunities for personal choice, action, responsibility, and accountability, decrease corruption. A third proposition ¾ examined in this paper ¾ posits a curvilinear relationship, of the cubic form, between freedoms and corruption. Specifically, at low levels of human freedoms, corruption will increase as freedoms increase; at moderate to moderately high levels of freedoms, corruption will decrease as freedoms increase; and at very high levels of freedoms, a threshold point will be reached, beyond which corruption will increase.    
This proposition is tested using polynomial regression analysis, with corruption as the dependent variable and human freedoms as the independent variable. Corruption is gauged with the Corruption Perceptions Index published by Transparency International. Human freedoms are measured with an index created by factor analyzing various published measures of economic, political/civil, cultural, and religious freedoms. Results support the curvilinear hypothesis, and implications and limitations of those results are discussed.

The Roots of Governmental Mistrust Inside Ourselves
Lawrence J. Schneider

                Many perceive that the problem of waning trust in government is rooted in a breakdown of ethics. Though commentators try to identify the source of this growing mistrust, it seems likely that multiple factors contribute to the erosion of this trust. I assume that trust in government is related in part to deeper fundamental processes of the human condition. These processes may not be causative in mistrusting government, but I am of the opinion that they play a central role in shaping a person’s basic inclination toward trusting and more particularly influence one’s general orientation in regard to mistrusting government.
                I start with some basic purposes and the social necessity for government. After suggesting criteria for reviewing criteria for good rule-making, identification of how statutes are applied and the consequences of their enforcement are considered. This leads to awareness of the central role that reason and logic occupies in the evolution of society and human development. Hints of the development of mistrust in government can be seen from the interplay of reason and logic, application of law, and the individual’s conduct of life. I summarize aspects of human development from three analytic perspectives. Finally, I attempt to weave a tapestry that shows how these fundamental processes imbue individuals with a basic inclination toward trusting or mistrusting government. These factors are not proposed as the definitive explanation for waning trust in government, but they do play an influential role that may be overlooked or underestimated as foundations on which such trust/mistrust rests. 

When is the Pentagon exempt from revealing the truth?
Rose Sergi

Nothing defines the public's waning trust in government more than George W. Bush’s treatment of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) as it relates to the Department of Defense.
In December 2005, The Defense Authorization Act was passed by the Congress of the United States which renders the Defense Intelligence Agency’s operational files fully immune to FOIA requests.  In short, the Department of Defense has been granted exemption from FOIA requests.  Said requests are the central mechanism by which watchdog groups, journalists and the general public can access federal documents.
Naturally, the concern is that abuse is much more likely to occur because there is no public oversight of the activities of the Defense Intelligence Agency.  This exemption expires, due to an imposed two-year sunset date, in December 2007.
If the U.S. government has nothing to hide, if its dealings are all above board, then why was this exemption ever granted to the Pentagon?  The answer to this question and speculation about the impact of the government’s abuse of power will be the subject of the forthcoming paper.


Representative Agency: The Fundamental Trust Relation of All Social Structure
Ronald Teeples


Representative agency is defined and illustrated as a fundamental building block of every social organization. An analytical framework emerges that is used to reformulate the normative paradigm advanced in Milton Friedman’s famous (1970) essay identifying maximization stockholder profits as the sole social responsibility of corporate managers. The paper’s representative agency framework clarifies moral duties for both principals and agents who are bound together in long-term trust relations. The framework renders superfluous much of the existing distinctions claimed to differentiate stakeholder from stockholder analysis of social organizations. Representative agency is simply portrayed as a resource control mechanism, constituted as a durable trust relation, capable of application to social /business/governmental institutions, but requiring investment in character development and other techniques for ultimately making it accountable and more productive than associations secured by more extensive government regulation, monitoring, enforcement effort, and private transaction costs.



Distrust and the Nuclear Doctrine
J.D. Wulfhorst

A generation ago, rampant economic problems and perceived risk of nuclear power brought the industry to a halt on applying for new construction permits.  Because of the military history of nuclear technology, development of the existing nuclear power infrastructure during the Cold War, and contemporary discussion about nuclear power offering a reduced carbon footprint, it has emerged as a force within the global climate debate.  The amalgam of associated nuclear technologies and activity has created a nuclear doctrine, or a set of conditions about the culture and politics of our energy needs and production options.  However, questions remain as to the safety and environmental impact of next generation nuclear technologies, which have yet to be deployed into operation.  Economic change with federal incentives along with popular news media describing a renaissance of the industry have sparked renewed questions about the nuclear technology options and impacts.  The article uses the wicked problems theme to analyze the nuclear doctrine.  The concept of distrust in government and industry managers is applied to understand the primary dilemmas facing the nuclear doctrine in the dynamic context of global climate change.

Teaching Bad Faith and Broken Promises: The Erosion of the Covenant between the Citizen and the State
Kristen Zbikowski

With the ethics scandals in the U. S. government in recent years and the current administration’s efforts to redefine governmental policies and procedures, the actions of the elected officials seem to be eroding the bond between the state and the citizen.  This paper investigates the relationships between the citizen and the state and the citizen and the elected officials by distinguishing between state and government and between covenants and contracts.  The bond between the citizen and the state is argued to be covenantal in nature, while that between the citizen and the government is argued to be contractual. 
By directing attention to different types of moral wrong, simple and compound wrongdoing, I will show that the actions of the government in recent years have been changing and eroding the covenant between the citizens and the state. The result of this erosion is an increasing alienation of the citizens toward the state. My concluding remarks focus upon three approaches the government and citizens could utilize to attempt to reaffirm this important covenantal relationship.



Orwell’s “Smelly Little Orthodoxies”: Absolutism and the Crisis of Our Time
Everett Helmut Akam

With the historical triumph of modernity in the West, who could have possibly foreseen the tsunami-like resurgence of religion as a force in the political life of our times?  Radical jihadists are breaching the wall separating church and state with unimaginable barbarism.  Even in the United States, the formidable political power of conservative evangelical Christians has liberals scrambling to assure voters that they, too, are born again.  Yet this breach is also producing a backlash.  All those of good will denounce the despicable actions of the “new totalitarians;” surprisingly, however, even evangelicals are now denounced from a more tolerant Christian perspective as “American fascists.” And a growing number of readers are drawn to the works of the “new atheists,” including Christopher Hitchens, until recently Orwell’s champion and author of God Is Not Great.  Although Hitchens recently proclaimed Orwell’s irrelevance for our time, that judgment stands premature.  Orwell continues to matter today, for he condemned not only totalitarianism but all forms of absolutism, all those “smelly little orthodoxies,” both secular and religious, that close men’s minds


Two Current Challenges to Public Leadership: Individual Autonomy and Group Polarization
George S. Matejka

The new millennium is now almost seven years old.  These years have been difficult ones for many in leadership positions in our country.  The business world was rocked by the Enron and Worldcom scandals.  The Catholic Church was stunned by the revelations of clergy abuse of minors.  Local governments have seen police and judges indicted for criminal behavior.  And, nationally citizens have been repeatedly jabbed by the news of apparently deceptive communications by numerous government officials.  In this collective wake, citizens are understandably growing more and more reluctant to trust leaders of any stripe.  How have we come to this social malaise?


Improving American Police Ethics Training: Focusing on Social Contract Theory and Constitutional Principles
Monica M. Moll

                Americans have good reason to fear the awesome power granted to police officers and to demand that these government officials adhere to the strictest of ethical standards in carrying out their duties.  No other government official has such direct power and immediate access to regularly deprive the average citizen of their liberties.  Other scholars (Cohen and Feldberg, 1991; Fitzpatrick, 2006) have articulated a clear set of ethical standards that should be used to guide the police in America, yet they are not being taught to most American police cadets.  These standards are based on social contract theory and principles found in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, its Bill of Rights and the Federalist Papers.  Are these principles too complicated for the average police recruit to internalize?  One would think an officer that takes an oath to uphold the U.S. Constitution would at least understand the basic principles found within it.
                This paper is partly an extension of an earlier work by FitzPatrick (2006).  It will explain why a change in current police ethics training focusing on outcome-based codes of ethics and oaths of honor is necessary.  The paper reviews Cohen and Feldberg’s (1991) five moral standards for police and argues that they should form the basis of police ethics training in the U.S.  It explores the reasons that these standards are rarely taught to cadets in police academies across the nation.  Suggestions for maneuvering around these barriers and incorporating the five moral standards for police into all levels of police training will be presented.

Effect Of Governmental Immunity On Declining Governmental Ethics—The King Can Do Wrong!
Marilyn Phelan

Some of the decline in ethics in government must be attributed to the awareness of governmental officials that they generally cannot be sued for their wrongful or unethical conduct. The long standing judicial doctrine of sovereign immunity, which prevents citizens from suing the government unless the government gives its consent to such suits, is an antiquated carryover from the days of the near-absolute power of the English kings and is based on the philosophy that the sovereign cannot commit a legal wrong and, thus, should be immune from civil suit.  While the doctrine fell into some disfavor in the past, recently U.S. courts have applied the doctrine more vigorously to continue the judicial notion that citizens cannot bring suits against the government.  The justification seems to be that the government would be hindered substantially in its performance of public duties if it were subjected to repeated suits as a matter of right of any citizen, but more realistically the reason for the court’s continuing application of such an antiquated doctrine is grounded on another established but often inconsistently applied doctrine, the principle of stare decisis.  Based on this principle, the Supreme Court has treated the tenet that citizens cannot sue their government as a fabric of our jurisprudence from the time of the drafting and ratification of the Constitution and the institution of the first U.S. courts to present.

The Absence of Ethics in No Child Left Behind
Jerry Robicheau

A national debate on the reauthorization of the federal mandate No Child Left Behind (NCLB) will center on the impact the law has had on American public education. Much of this debate will center on the major intent of the law that measures academic proficiency by reliance on the results of standardized tests. Armstrong, (2006) Pardini, (2004) Duck, Trucker, Groden & Heinecke (2003), and Starratt (2004) raise the ethical issues of NCLB. Armstrong contends that NCLB takes away the focus on education of the human begins and instead focuses on standardized tests. As educational leaders are expected to rely more on standardized tests as a measure of student performance they will find themselves more in conflict with their ethical standards.  School leaders are faced with the dilemma of allocating resources for the greatest good of the organization or allocate resources to respond to the NCLB mandate.  Ethical standards of justice and equality are the expectation that educators have the responsibility to treat all students equally and justly. This opinion paper will present a dialogue regarding the absence of the ethical tenets of justice and equality in NCLB and will present rationale as to why ethics must be included in the national debate.


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The Baltic - from European Sea of Troubles to Global Interface
Nils Blomkvist

The idea of studying a vast sea as an entity has a formidable pioneer in Fernand Braudel, who analysed the role of the Mediterranean for the peoples surrounding it. His La Méditerranée et le monde méditerranéen à lèpoque de Philippe II from 1949 demonstrates the extreme permanence of Mediterranean cultures, longue durée as he called it, upon which the cyclic movements of conjunctures, and the daily flow of events made little impact. In his later work he endeavoured to generalise these observations on a more or less global scale.


Communications and Military Intervention in Historical Perspective: The United States and Latin America
John A. Britton

            The importance of communications in contemporary warfare is evident in the use of global positioning satellites and laser guided bombs in the 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 United States invasion of Iraq. Frederick Kagan encapsulates the priority given to electrical surveillance and rapid communications in the title of his book: Finding the Target. Kagan and other analysts may disagree on specific policy options, but there seems to be a broad consensus that the unimpeded flow of information is essential for military and naval operations.


Factors of Change in Modern Europe: A Practical Way to Teach Contemporary History
David C. McGaffey


For roughly one thousand years, Western European society was characteristically fractured, static, and bellicose. An obvious solution to any problem was to make war on another European. Contemporary Europe (since the end of WWII), by contrast, is relatively unified, dynamic, and peaceful. While WWI, WWII, and the inter-war period were an obvious trigger or turning point, the causes of this astonishing transformation are not clear. Factors affecting this social change appear to be multifarious and have deep rootsin European history. Teaching this ongoing extraordinary transformation, for which neither a root cause nor the end result are known, presents a challenge. This paper shows how the use oftraditional factor analysis to teach Contemporary European History both provides students with a deeper understanding of the dynamics of change and offers them a tool to better understand their own contemporary history. This paper proposes a methodology to make students comfortable with using factor analysis and historical arguments under conditions of uncertainty.

The Value of Historical Study and the Clash of Civilizations
Keith Huxen

In the late 1970s, the Oxford philosopher Isaiah Berlin entitled an essay, “Does Political Theory Still Exist?” in which the question mark denoted doubts concerning the viability of the intellectual field itself, and in which he commented that support for the negative viewpoint emanated from the fact that “no commanding work of political philosophy has appeared in the twentieth century.”  I will submit that the long twilight of the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union, in which the proponents and tenants of capitalist democracy and Marxist communism struggled, bounded the possibilities of debate over the future of the world at that time.  However, in the late 1980s as the Cold War was resolved and the Soviet Union literally disintegrated, the possibilities for the application of political theory to the future opened with two inspired works which have set our current standards for debate.

The History of Presidential-Congressional Leadership In American War Making: From Washington To Bush And The Empire-Building Neocons
Tim R. Miller

Writing in support of ratification of the U.S. Constitution, the learned James Madison cautioned:

            If men were angels, no government would be necessary.  In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself.  A dependence on the people is no doubt, the primary control on the government; but experience has taught mankind the necessity of auxiliary precautions.

            So it would be necessary, he continued, to separate powers and provide various checks to balance power between the various branches of the proposed new American federal government.  “But it is not possible,” Madison would continue, “to give each department an equal power of self-defense.  In republican government, the legislative authority necessarily predominates” (Hamilton, Madison and Jay, 1961:322).
            Accordingly, as Angela and John Roddey Holder would explain, “The framers of the Constitution envisioned the Congress as the most important and most powerful branch of government” (1997:19).  It would be the people’s branch; it would have extensive enumerated powers establishing the very basis of federal authority.  And so began a slow, evolutionary tug of war for the preeminent role of institutional leadership in American policymaking, an ebb and flow of competition across time.
            American policymaking since September 11, 2001 (hereafter 9/11) has both shed light upon, and has in fact redefined, the congressional-presidential balance of power in the realm of foreign policy generally and war making particularly, as will be examined in the pages below.  Two sections follow.  We begin with an overview of the history of presidential-congressional rivalry across America’s war making, establishing the point that the administration has, in the words of Charlie Savage, reinstituted an “era of unchecked executive power”
(10-07:25).  Next, we turn to the heart of the matter in answering the question, “How, exactly, has this presidential power grab been accomplished?”  The discussion concludes with a query of the implications of America’s most recent venture into empire building by noting unmistakable parallels between Bush policy and neoconservative ideology.

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The Historical and Political Influence of Imperialism and Colonialism upon 21st Century China
Nooshan Shekarabi and Narges Rabii

The History of Chinese Politics

In order to truly appreciate the significance of the current influence of 20th century imperialism and colonialism on modern day China, it is crucial to acknowledge the political history of China towards the end of the imperial system in 1912. The year 1912 marked a profound change in the history of China. Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, China’s political, economic, and military influence had declined due to the growing regional power of imperial Japan and the penetration of Western powers. The last Chinese dynasty – the Qing – was abolished ending 2000 years of imperial rule. The Chinese Nationalists (Kuomintang) then established the Republic of China on January 1st, 1912.

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An Application of The Two Cultures to Environmental Education
Scott Ashmann

Abstract: Over the past few decades, it has become evident that the natural environment is an entity that humans need to better understand. Environmental education is defined here as the teaching and learning of, and about, nature and human interaction with nature. Traditionally, the environment has been researched and taught about in a piecemeal fashion – Studies and instruction in the sciences (hydrology, land cover, soil, atmosphere, etc.) were completely separate from social issues related to the environment. However, a new approach to conducting research has permeated environmental studies whereby a systems approach (or a more-holistic view) is utilized that combines ideas and approaches from the sciences and humanities. Some schools are beginning to implement this approach by organizing environmental curricula in a systems or holistic manner. This paper provides an application of C.P. Snow’s ideas in thinking about how to develop curriculum and teaching strategies that transcend the piecemeal approach (and the corresponding cultures associated with each discipline) and provide a deeper understanding for students of not only the elements of the environment, but also the ways in which they interact and their relationship to social issues.


Reason’s Personal and Public Roles in Meeting Snow’s Challenge
Charles V. Blatz

            This paper explores the challenge laid down in C.P. Snow’s The Two Cultures and A Second Look.  The work is not only or even primarily a discussion of intellectual culture wars.  Rather it is concerned with ameliorating the human condition, and thus with an enterprise of ethics.  This discussion seeks to draw out Snow’s explicit ethical challenge of bettering the human lot through finding a form of intellectual culture that can take full advantage of the second scientific revolution and its attendant new industrial revolution.  The paper argues, however, that the ameliorative challenge will not be met in yet another contending form of intellectual culture.  After giving an account of how Snow understands intellectual culture, I argue that ethical ends will not be guaranteed by any such further fashion of reasoning.
                Snow overlooked a crucial part of the workings of reason.  This is a dimension of reason’s culture that is found in the formation and maintenance of a coherent experiential base underlying articulate, evidence-providing forms of reasoning.  This phenomenological understory of reasoning is arguably the basis of creative judgment bringing together a holistic sense of the inquirer’s circumstances necessary to all inquiry.  Further, the paper’s explorations suggest why the integrative or reintegrative formation of this experiential basis will always involve an ethical dimension.  That much granted, the paper then proceeds to identify conditions under which the ethical dimension of an inquirer’s experience will suit it to join with the experiential base of other inquirers so as to lead to a common sense of what society might defensibly undertake to better the human lot.  The vagaries of an ethical commons so constructed will not assure success, but do show a path along which society might strive.  In conclusion, the character and point of this striving are related to the pursuit of wisdom and to the maintenance of intellectual and experiential pluralism.  These pursuits, I suggest, are the real challenge Snow left

E=mc2 and Other Artistic Equations: Encouraging the Complementary Skills of Einstein and of Picasso through Redefinition
Mary Dezember

C.P. Snow calls for communication between the “two cultures” of arts and humanities and science and mathematics so that, globally, humanity can survive and prosper.  This paper suggests that when individuals begin to identify with both “cultures,” they will be less tolerant of such polarity within education and society and will begin to foster and even expect a mending of this fractured societal persona.  My thesis comes from the results of a questionnaire answered by 55 of my students—members of the “science and mathematics culture,” for they attend a science, engineering, and technology research institution.  The results of this survey strongly suggest that teaching non-dualism, non-oppositional or complementary dualism—meaning differences that work together for a whole, such as illustrated by the yin yang symbol—is validating for many students. 
Survey results also show that most students feel that the scientific and artistic aspects within their personalities are balanced or close to balanced; many answers suggest that students are seeking a resolution of this breach in their education and in society.  Some surprising results emerged from the survey, such as revealing that an almost equal number of students considered themselves “predominantly artistic” as do those who consider themselves “predominantly scientific.”  Results also articulate further redefinition is needed in each of the “two cultures” for their equal validity in society.  Specifically, most likely from educational and societal training that begins when young, students do not recognize the transformative value of the socio-political impact of art and do not understand that artists are often technicians of social change.


Virtual Learning Worlds as a Bridge between Arts and Humanities and Science and Technology
Jeremy Dunning, Sunand Bhattacharya, David Daniels and Katherine Dunning

Science and technology, when applied to educational excellence, have become part of the arts and humanities of tomorrow. The interactive multimedia technology tools available to educators today provide an opportunity to build into the distance or traditional course through learning objects, highly interactive experiential exercises that allow the instructor and the student to obtain an accurate image of the student’s level of understanding of the content throughout the course. The instructor can not only determine that a student does not understand some aspect of the content of the course, but may also determine exactly what part of the content the student fails to comprehend. Of more importance is the fact that students may also get an immediate and accurate map of their own mastery of the content. To create absorbing and successful traditional, blended, and online classes, a broader cooperative design structure that is as much art as technology is required. In this paper the concepts involved in the creation of course materials, through a cooperative partnership between Indiana University, ITT Educational Services, Inc. (the parent company for the 93 ITT Technical Institutes across the United States), Pearson Learning Solutions, and Arjuna Multimedia, are explored. They have resulted in a technological teaching environment in which sophisticated interactive computer technology may be incorporated into any classroom or distance course to provide the most effective learning experience. These techniques apply equally well in courses in arts and humanities and science and technology. Such tools as virtual worlds, laboratory simulations, game theory-based exercises, artificial intelligence systems, and intelligent tutors have been applied to several hundred courses in 17 countries with excellent results. The focus of this paper is on the pedagogical approaches considered and utilized in these cooperative course production partnerships.


Music: A Bridge Between Two Cultures
Alma Espinosa

     Certain aspects of European art music occupy a middle ground between the
two cultures described by C. P. Snow almost fifty years ago.  Analogies exist not only between mathematics and the ratios underlying musical notation and intervals (i.e., the distance between pitches) but also between computer science and counterpoint (simultaneous melodies): in both cases there is a precise syntax of individual parts within the whole. 
     Music’s relationship to the humanities and social sciences is also of considerable interest to bridging Snow’s two cultures; trends in music, especially opera, have sometimes seemed to herald events in the social, political, and economic realms.
     These and other correspondences suggest that rigorous classroom instruction in music, with an emphasis on its links to other disciplines, should be required throughout the school years and on into the undergraduate core.  Such a policy, if implemented, might well help future generations to bridge the divide between Snow’s two cultures.

Contemporary Art, Science, Ecology, and a Critical Pedagogy of Place
Mark A. Graham

In contemporary life and education, the local is marginalized in favor of large-scale economies of consumption that are indifferent to ecological concerns. The consequences of neglecting local human and natural communities include a degraded habitat, loss of wilderness, alienation, rootlessness, and lack of connection to communities. Place-based education responds to this indifference to local ecological concerns by grounding student learning in the experiences of their own lives, communities, and regions. Critical place-based pedagogy broadens the scope of place-based learning by incorporating critical theory into the curriculum of the local. This article describes a critical pedagogy of place as a prelude to describing contemporary art that is involved with ecological and social issues. Works of contemporary artists that are responsive to the ecology of local places and culture will be explored as examples of collaboration between artistic and scientific approaches. These artists suggest possibilities for the educator to create a critical pedagogy about place and to resist the isolation of the classroom from vital issues of community and ecology. The intersection of critical theory, place-based learning, and art education provides a robust framework for the theory and practice of education concerned with ecological issues.

Balancing Act: Bridging the Traditional And Technological Aspects of Culture Through Art Education
Pamela Harris Lawton

            This paper addresses the benefits of connecting and balancing education in the visual arts and in technology through discussion of actual examples.  This balanced connection accomplishes three goals: to further advance and enhance quality of life, to cultivate humane and ethical behaviors, and to initiate global dialogue on issues that matter among people from diverse cultures, languages, countries and ethnicities.
                The visual arts and technology are mutually dependent upon one another.  In fact, much of yesterday’s technology is today’s fine art.  Two excellent examples of this are printmaking and photography.  Printmaking techniques were once used to simultaneously print text and image, to spread religious doctrine and communicate important information to the literate as well as the illiterate.  Photography, a less labor intensive process than printmaking, replaced it, and is another example of a technological advance that is used for scientific, commercial and fine art purposes.
                Technology is a boon to the arts in that it presents artists with another set of tools in which to express their creative vision and make it easily accessible to a broader audience.  The arts need technology to grow, flourish, and meet the changing aesthetic tastes and needs of an increasingly global society.  Technology needs art to envision possibilities, to make it more palatable, more humane and to raise questions about the effects of technological advances on our values, morals, ethics and natural environment.
                Through a balanced education, that connects the arts and technology, placing equal weight on the importance of each within the curriculum, teachers can encourage both right and left-brain thinking. In this way we secure for ourselves a future in which our imaginations are unbounded and creativity translates into a well thought out and carefully planned reality that ensures the health and happiness of future generations.


Preferential States of the Dichotomy of Human Nature: Art and Science
John G. Thomas Amador Legaspi

It is essential that the roots of the division in western culture presented by CP Snow’s Two Cultures be examined in order to view their many present day ramifications and solutions. The purpose of this paper is to explore the dichotomy of our artistic and scientific origins biologically, socially, economically, spiritually and emotionally. This will also bring into question the validity of these preferential attitudes. Is this division an empirical shared realty or more of a perceived orchestrated reality? By examining these origins and the subsequent paths leading to the contemporary state in western culture one may perhaps be able to focus on the benefits of striking a balance between the arts and sciences in our educational systems as well as in our daily lives. This reflection on our dual nature hopes to shed some light on the principals of our universal connections and solutions in our multi-layered human existence. As a visual artist and art educator, I will also illustrate this division or lack there of throughout past and contemporary art examples. The culture that Snow talks about carries itself many questions as to exactly who he is talking about. The multiplicity in our society is so diverse that it is hard to classify Snow’s definition of culture. For the sake of this paper I will try to loosely target the mainstream of western culture.
A familiar eastern axiom speaks of the parts of a whole as being crucial aspects to a complete unity. It is prefaced by the prudent warning that no part is greater than their sum. If the arts and the sciences analogously are the parts to a complete scope of humanity, segmenting and elevating one over the other will fragment our perspective and render humanity’s heirs unfortunately incomplete.

The Marriage of Two Opposing Cultures        
Luis Loubriel

With a heavy dominance on its technical/empirical aspects, the segmented performance, pedagogy, and assessment of Western classical music is undermining its goal of creating art with precision, style, and expressive beauty. This segmentation has its roots in the quantitative assessment processes found in music education and in the note-perfect performance expectations of art organizations. The results are often heard in the uninspired performances of such vital music.
As an alternative, an integral performance, educational, and assessment approach (the IPEA model) will be open for discussion. The IPEA model utilizes the concepts of upward causation (science) and downward causation (art) to equalize the elements found in the music quadrants and it continues with their evolutionary track through the Spiral Dynamics as designed by Beck and Cowan. An all-quadrant/multilevel pedagogical, performance, and assessment approach will result signaling a major shift in Western classical music by addressing the developmental needs of music students/performers without corroding their technical or expressive strengths. This model bridges the gap between the empirical and the artistic sides of music proposing, perhaps, the perfect marriage of two seemingly opposing cultures: science and art.

A  Critical  Choice:  The  Arts  And  Humanities  In The  Dark  Age  Of  Terrorism  And  Globalism
Everett  F.  Peralta

Can humanity survive another Dark Age with terrorism as the only sustainable solution left to the second and third worlds? Is the price of globalism only a scientific and technological philosophical perspective that is dominated by the first world superpowers? Can the arts and humanities save mankind and civilization in changing from a negative arena of conflict and destruction to a proactive dialogue and life on earth? What possible models of speculation are possible when terrorism is the only solution? Can the beast in Man be affected by the higher order of thinking and achievements of the Arts and humanities? What is the gain and profits of the arts and humanities in the game of power and force of science and technology? Do we need a global renaissance in the arts and humanities to resolve our conflicts? The critical choice is a balance between the two cultural perspectives of the Arts and Humanities with Science and Technology.

Art Meets Science
C. Renee Rohs
            Numerous connections between the visual arts and sciences are evident if we choose to look for them.  In February 2006, students and faculty from the Art and Geol/Geog departments at NW Missouri State University put together an exhibit at a local art gallery featuring works that were born out of science, inspired by science, or exploring the science behind the art.  The primary goal of this project was to provide a setting where students could make creative links and increase awareness of both arts and sciences through community outreach.  Photomicrographs, scanning electron microscopic images and lightning photography were included along with written explanations describing background information such as interference colors, intricate three-dimensional structures <50mm in size, and timed shutter speeds.  Comparatively, two pastel works, using colors, lines, and curves, had been inspired by the laws of physics while one ceramic piece depicted marine invertebrates cast in stone.  Students were involved at all levels of the project from developing the displays to interacting with community members at the reception to creative writing in response to the exhibit.  Outcomes from this project provide evidence of direct benefits to students as a result of integrating understanding in both arts and sciences.

The Science of Art: Reconsidering the Interpretive Methods of Creativity in American Art
Carol G. J. Scollans

   Philosophically in American society there has been much debate about the validity of art as a reflection of cultural importance. Historically in this country, art was thought to be antithetical to the Puritanical sensibility that defined the character of American life. Perceived as luxury, it was believed that high art caused the moral decay of great civilizations unlike the sciences which advanced the course and direction of civilization. By emphasizing methods of analysis and interpretation art historians have begun to illuminate the complex role of the visual arts as a primary vehicle through which we can illustrate how civilizations thrive.

The New Perception:  Hypermediating Interdisciplinary Cultures Through Aesthetic Education
John Toth


The Arts and Sciences have long shared an interest in studying the world and representing an understanding of that world through their respective language and methods. Scientists use numbers and equations to prove theories and artists use paint, color, shapes and patterns to create visual representations/interpretations of the world. 
However, the electronic age has challenged the way in which we define both the substance and process of our world. C. P. Snow advocates a new perception to bridge the gap between the specialized world of science (quantum theory) and the abstract world of the arts (Dada and Cubism).  Aesthetic Education facilitates perception by the close study of a work of art that is opened to the viewer by participating in activities, reflection and discussion that develop the language of the art form. The new perception that C. P. Snow advocated in 1959 must embrace the latest technologies that require a new literacy that is based on hypermedia. Hypermedia is a linking apparatus that is embedded in technologies such as e-mail, electronic databases, virtual reality games, word processors, spreadsheets and numerous electronic technologies that involves a conductive method of association that leads us into the Twenty-first Century.


Image Making and Meaning: Educational benefits to studying Design in the 21st century
Nancy Wynn

Over the past 27 years, the influence of technology has revolutionized the professional practice of Design and its products produced. At the same time, technology has also created more advanced and complex pedagogy for design education. However regardless of technology’s influence, critical thinking, problem solving, and presentation are still founding principles that must
be explored, experienced, and comprehended.
In the United States, primary and secondary educational institutions do not focus on Design per se, they have Graphics, Architectural Drafting, and Photography listed under ‘Tech Ed.’ Colleges and universities vary based on how many different design disciplines they offer. Some have entire schools devoted to design or large departments that offer a multitude of options. Other smaller programs offer Graphic Design under ‘Commercial Arts’ or within ‘Marketing Communications’ departments. At the present time, technological influence or the connection to business are the main identifiers for affiliation.
I believe Design should be used to create a more whole-minded educational experience. It blends both science and technology with art and humanities—a dynamic integration. From the initial visualization to the final presentation, a project
can employ reading and research, math, drawing a concept, technological production, writing an argument, collaboration,
and presenting the project. I will present examples of successful integrated learning experiences that yield both amateur and professional results as well as create exciting learning environments for students and professionals alike.


Poverty Back to top



The Relationship between Socio-economic Conditions and the Impact of Natural Disasters on Rural and Urbanized Regions Level of Preparedness and Recovery
DeAnna M. Burney, Keith Simmonds and Gilbert Queeley

The capacity to survive and recover from the effects of a natural disaster depends on two major factors: the physical magnitude of the disaster and the socio-economic conditions of individuals or social groups who experience the crisis. In short, poverty is the central factor that will determine the level of vulnerability and hence the survival of a natural hazard turned disaster. Therefore, it is suggested that the lack of preparedness, ability to reunify, and then rebuild after a natural or created disaster remains problematic, especially for children and families already facing poverty conditions.  The current research was designed to assess levels of preparedness and transit mobility in rural and urban regions during evacuation and reunification efforts when a natural disaster or terrorist attack occurs. Transportation was used as a variable of socioeconomic class or condition. The study focused on three primary research goals: 1 to identify if differences exist between urban and rural region transit evacuation and reunification efforts; 2. to examine the level of preparedness to evacuate due to personal resources and city or county assistance; 3. to examine the effects of Human Factors such as Stress, fatigue, and anger related accidents, and ability to rebuild after a disaster. Major outcomes of this study revealed that most participants of the study remain unprepared to survive a natural or created disaster, even though 50% of participants had some previous direct experience with natural disasters. Further, the study identified consistent concerns with poverty conditions as a major factor affecting their ability to prepare, evacuate, reunify, and rebuild after a natural disaster.
The intellectual merit of this project centers on the neglected community of disaster victims and their socioeconomic need for assistance in preparing and rebuilding following a disaster. The research is new and informative to the national and international communities, due to minimal published investigations regarding victims of natural disasters.

Food Stamp Use among Food Pantry Clients in the United States
Patricia A. Duffy

Although the United States government provides an array of food assistance programs for low‑income individuals and families, private emergency food assistance has emerged in the last several decades as an increasingly important resource for meeting food needs among impoverished households. Although emergency food assistance clients generally have very low incomes and have a clear need for additional food, only about one-third of clients surveyed at food pantries indicate that they receive food stamps. This paper examines how food security status is related to participation in the Food Stamp Program for a national sample of food pantry clients. Results indicate that food pantry clients who receive food stamps have a higher probability of being food secure than those who apply for food stamps but do not receive them, but a lower probability of food security than those who have not applied. Increased household income yields a smaller increase in the probability of being food secure in households receiving food stamps than in those not receiving food stamps.

Managing Social Security Benefits to Avoid Future Impoverishment for
At-Risk Populations in the U.S.

Morrine Tauheed

The Social Security Administration (SSA) administers the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) Program in the United States. The amount of Social Security benefit is based on an individual worker’s lifetime earnings and replaces approximately 40% of an average wage earner’s income. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has determined that the U.S. poverty line in 2006 for a single-person family unit was $9800 annually (approximately $816.67 monthly). The median monthly Social Security benefit for 2006 is estimated at $989.50. Since the Social Security benefit is often the sole (or primary) source of income, many Social Security beneficiaries fall below the poverty line.
This paper will examine some strategies for future beneficiaries to maximize their Social Security benefits and possibly alleviate future income deficiencies. Methods such as increasing lifetime earnings, accurately assessing future financial needs, and establishing additional sources of income will be discussed. Studies focus on at-risk populations already susceptible to and/or for whom impoverishment is exacerbated. Results show that expectations and reliance on Social Security differ among ethnic groups as well as among gender groups. There are also differences in trends in plans to obtain information regarding benefits. While several proposals to remedy the problem are discussed, clearly a fresh approach, such as this study, is needed to help tackle the complexity of the growing Social Security dilemma.


Is Public Concern Over Growing Executive Compensation Justified? A Study of Income And Wealth Inequality
Melissa S. Wiseman and Gordon  B. Severance

Abstract: This paper will scrutinize income inequality trends over the past quarter century, focusing on the relatively disparate growth of corporate executive compensation relative to income and wealth of subordinate wage-earners.  In this area of comparative incomes, special attention will be given to stock options—a new hybrid that is often taxed as income, yet at other times as capital gains—which are a major builder of wealth and the ensuing backdating scandals.   Possible improvements in corporate governance as well as other remedies are explored.



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Physical Fitness: The Gateway to Preventive Health
Ben R.  Abadie


The promotion of physical fitness provides individuals direct physiological and psychological benefits that will serve to enhance preventive health. These benefits include: reduction of mortality rates, reduction of blood glucose, improved quality of life in patients with chronic lung diseases, reduced risk of the development of atherosclerosis by increasing high-density lipoproteins, reducing systemic hypertension, reducing body fat, reducing  insulin needs, and reducing platelet adhesiveness and aggregation.  Physical activity reduces intraocular pressure, increases bone mineral density, and reduces the risk of the development of certain types of cancers.  Physical activity reduces the severity of depression and anxiety and stabilizes mood.  Individuals who are physically active are less likely to smoke, abuse addictive drugs, abuse alcohol, and are less likely to engage in destructive eating behaviors.   This paper also will review the impact of a sedentary lifestyle on society, as well as discuss strategies to increase physical fitness participation.


Community-Based Health Education Intervention: A Service-Learning Approach
Srijana M. Bajracharya


A variety of best practices concerning community-based health education intervention has been developed and administered. Integrating service-learning projects into community health programs through academic credit-bearing courses can make such programs more effective and meaningful because programs incorporating service-learning projects can have a major effect not only on the target population, but also on other populations in the community. 
                This paper will cover how health education program planners can involve college and university students—future health professionals—in service-learning projects and integrate these projects into community health programs.  Such projects encourage students to apply what they have learned in the classroom in real-world settings. These activities ensure that the service being provided and the learning that is occurring receive equal attention and benefit both students and clients. The participation of college and university students (who often have abundant energy and motivation) can help make community health programs cost effective and advantageous to all involved.  This paper will present sample projects and models in order to show how health professionals can include college and university students in partnerships to provide health education programs and to support comprehensive community health promotion and disease prevention activities.

Effective Strategies to Reduce High Risk Drinking Among College Students and Residents in an Urban Environment
Marsha Brinkley and Donald W. Zeigler

An urban American university, Georgia Institute of Technology, established a campus-community coalition to reduce high risk drinking, its harms and second-hand effects among university students and residents of the Atlanta community. The Atlanta-based institution was part of a ten-year, ten-university project, A Matter of Degree (AMOD), administered by the American Medical Association with funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and evaluation by the Harvard School of Public Health. The Georgia Tech program, GT Smart, sought to change campus and community policies that affect the alcohol “wet” environment that passively permits or actively encourages high-risk drinking. Unlike the other nine AMOD coalitions, Georgia Tech had an additional challenge of residing in a major urban environment. However, the coalition systematically and effectively addressed campus issues and undertook change in both local neighborhoods and municipal policy alcohol-control measures. The projects successful comprehensive strategies of civic engagement and confronting political barriers provide important lessons for other urban communities and university environments.

Collective Efficacy: A Community Level Health Promotion and Prevention Strategy
Abigail A. Gerding

Hispanic-Americans are almost twice as likely to die from diabetes, than Caucasians.  In an effort to improve health outcomes of Hispanic Appalachians, faculty researchers from East Tennessee State University (ETSU) and representatives from the Hispanic community came together in 2003 to form La Coalicion Hispano-Americano de la Salud (CHAS). Using CDC funds, the members of CHAS and ETSU faculty engaged in community-based participatory research (CBPR) focused on diabetes prevention.  The team implemented thirteen health screenings and informational sessions serving approximately 400 people. Increased utilization of a local clinic resulted in a 30% increase in Hispanic diabetic patients.  CHAS members were included in at least 3 advisory health boards throughout the city.  Continued collaboration as a community resulted in other types of health promotion and prevention activities. These findings indicated that CBPR is an effective mechanism for strengthening community capacity for change.  Collective efficacy is the linkage of mutual trust and a shared willingness to intervene for the good of the community.  By increasing the ability of the community to work together to address health issues, collective efficacy becomes a significant community level intervention.

The Politics of AIDS in the Black Community
Byron D’Andra Orey

Throughout history, dating back to slavery, blacks have been confronted with economic, political and social subjugation while living in the United States. During the course of this struggle, the black church has served as a place of refuge for the black community. The church, for example, served as the catalyst for the civil rights movement.  Organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, led by the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King and Rev. Ralph Abernathy, worked tirelessly to tear down the barriers of inequality.    
In recent years, however, the black church has, arguably, failed to provide the same type of leadership in the fight against HIV-AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).



The USDA Food Stamp Program and Childhood Obesity: An Innovative Approach
Joyce Lynn Terrell

     This white paper is a response to the Oxford Roundtable Committees’ call for papers which address “current thinking and explore modern methods of remediation and treatment” of persistent and difficult health problems worldwide…moderating unsuitable eating habits being one of these. The Food Moderation Program a theoretical concept examines implementing policy that would moderate the quantity of select foods (e.g. soda, sweetened cereals, confectionaries) United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) food stamp recipients would be allowed to purchase in a monthly buying cycle. The need for exploration of this concept is defined in the statistics on obesity, a disease that is “expected to soon overtake cigarette smoking” as the number one cause of preventable death in America. The idea of moderating or limiting the USDA food stamp recipients’ purchase power at first glance, may appear to be controversial, yet, moderating one’s consumption of nutrient poor foods and encouraging purchase of healthier foods promotes a more nutritiously sound diet and the promise for a better quality of life. It is hoped that the Food Moderation concept will become an innovative approach to abating the obesity epidemic and possibly a promising practice in obesity prevention. However, acceptance of this approach requires one to look beyond bureaucratic challenge and the financial investment for technology up-grades to grasp and envision the bigger picture…to institute an effective scientifically (once studied) based method of obesity prevention that  ensures hope for a better, healthier tomorrow for Americas family
     The aim of this paper is to provide historical highlights of the USDA Food Stamp Program including the state of Minnesota’s request to prohibit Food Stamp program recipients from purchasing select food items with benefits, provide an overview of the obesity epidemic which plagues America’s children, introduce the Food Moderation concept detailing the theoretical framework outlining critical concerns as they relate to program feasibility, and finally explore initiatives addressing this problem. It is important to state the following disclaimer; The Food Moderation Program 1) will not eradicate the obesity problem due to its limited consumer base; 2) the exact number of Food Stamp recipients coping with obesity is not readily available; further research is needed in that area, although research purports a positive correlation between poverty and obesity; and 3) the moderation concept can not control for a recipients’ use of personal money to purchase monitored foods once food quantity allotment is met.

Community Alcohol Policy Coalitions in 10 College Communities: The ‘A Matter of Degree’ National Program To Reduce High Risk Drinking Among College Students
Richard Alan Yoast

“A Matter of Degree,” funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and administered by the American Medical Association, was a national program to test the application of environmental change strategies to reduce binge drinking among college students. Ten universities were funded (1996 through 2008) to 1) test the use of an environmental change model (with a focus on alcohol policy) in the college community; 2) develop sustainable campus-community policy partnerships; and 3) reduce student binge drinking and its negative effects on students and the community. Each site developed its own coalition structure and work plan but was required to focus primarily on campus and municipal policies and their enforcement, to emphasize use of the media to communicate with the public and decision-makers, and to have the active support and involvement of high level campus and city administrators.  External evaluation and on-site data collection were used to assess student attitudes and behaviors, coalition participation and changes in alcohol-related health and social outcomes.
At mid-point the outcomes evaluation indicated that five of the sites had more fully implemented the program than the others. Compared to the other five and 32 comparison sites which saw no changes in major indicators, the high implementation sites saw significant positive outcomes in a number of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences.  Compared to the coalitions at the lower implementation sites, the coalitions the high implementation sites were characterized by more formal structures and processes and had staff and leaders that were more facilitative and focused on building consensus. Their coalition members held more positive attitudes about the surrounding campus and city environments’ support for change, about the coalition’s management and ability to produce change, and expressed more positive feelings about their own participation in the coalition and the value of that participation. It is not clear whether these positive attitudes preceded and thus made coalition success more likely, or was produced by success, or was a realistic assessment of the likelihood for success. However, the ways in which these coalitions operated appear to have made their success more likely than the processes in the lower implementation sites.


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Attitudes Towards Health Technologies for Telecare and Their Relationship To Successful Aging in a Community-Based Older Minority Population
Elizabeth M. Bertera, Binh Q. Tran, Ellen M. Wuertz, and Aisha A. Bonner

Purpose: Examined attitudes and practices related to readiness and use of health technologies for telecare among an older minority population residing in affordable housing. Design and Methods: A model of successful aging based on Rowe and Kahn is used as a conceptual framework.  Eighty-five respondents with an average age of 73 completed a self-administered survey that assessed receptivity to health technologies for telecare. Results: The survey showed that this older, predominantly African American community has an interest in health technologies that enables telecare and successful aging in place, irrespective of education and physical functioning levels.  Results also suggest that those most likely to adopt new health technologies for telecare have the most positive attitudes toward successful aging, and are currently using some health technologies. The health technology that would be most likely to be used was environmental sensors in the home.  Older residents were most open to health technologies for telecare that improve communications with healthcare personnel, especially for medical emergencies and detecting falls. Arthritis, hypertension and diabetes were the top health problems; and getting enough exercise and following a healthy diet were the key barriers to managing them. Use of a camera in the home to monitor illness gave seniors the most concern. Implications: Older minority Americans residing in affordable housing are generally receptive to in-home health technologies for telecare.

The Lived Experiences of the Independent Oldest Old in Community-Based Programs: Public Policy Implications
Kathleen McNellis Carey

This study investigated the experiences of oldest old who live independently and participate in community-based programs. The qualitative research design was based on Heideggerian hermeneutics. The aims were to identify how oldest old urban-dwelling individuals perceive the experience of living independently and engaging in social programs; to analyze their life satisfaction and sense of well-being; to describe how these programs affect their sense of self; and to explore what social support and resources they perceive as important to their continued independence and well-being. The data were gathered in extended, nonstructured interviews and analyzed using ATLAS.ti software. The major findings include a profile of an individual who thrives independently at age 85 and beyond. This individual is committed to maintaining social ties, cares about an active body and mind, is energized by new ideas, and sets and attains short-term goals. Such an individual clearly exhibits resiliency and the ability to adjust. This person has the strength to accept loss and manage change, remains committed to making a meaningful contribution, and is at peace with the world and him- or herself. These findings can guide those influencing social policy and those professionals who work with the oldest old.

Protecting the Elderly in Times of Disaster:  The Critical Need for Comprehensive Disaster Planning and Exercise Design
James C. Hagen

Of vital concern internationally is the protection of one of our most vulnerable populations, the elderly, in times of disaster.  This is especially true when the threat of disasters, both man-made and natural, is increasing.  Recent disasters in the United States, especially Hurricane Katrina, have proven the inadequacy of current planning.  It has been shown that 91% of long term care (LTC) health professionals and other providers felt ill-prepared to deal with public health emergencies and bioterrorism threats.  Concern for the quality of life for LTC community residents and those elderly living at home must include intensive planning and preparation for emergencies/disasters that would compromise the safety of these most at-risk loved ones. 
                The optimal approach to improving the ability of LTC communities to respond lies in appropriate, targeted, and effective training concerning how to create/exercise plans to respond to, and recover from, disasters.  This work addresses major issues and challenges of disaster planning for the elderly.  Suggestions are provided for concrete action, and a there is a call for the LTC community to move forward in being included in future planning efforts and the exercising of these plans. 

The food habits of Black older adults in New York City: Are there differences between African Americans and Caribbean-born immigrants?
Beverly P. Lyons, Amandia Speakes-Lewis, and Ruchi Upadhyay

The purpose of this pilot study was to gather data from urban-dwelling African-American and Caribbean-born elders in order to explore their normal food habits, awareness about nutrition, influence of personal health conditions on food habits, and receipt of specific practitioner-initiated personalized nutrition intervention. A series of four focus groups were conducted among 50 Black elders, 36 of whom were African Americans and 14 of whom were Caribbean immigrants. Sessions were audio taped and transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed using ATLAS.ti software. Some elders from both subgroups have maintained lifelong cultural food habits regardless of personal health challenges. It was evident that there were differences in food habits, and health beliefs between the subgroups. Also, a larger percentage of African Americans received individualized intervention from their health practitioners primarily because of exacerbated personal health conditions. Those elders reporting no personal episodic health conditions also reported that they had not received separate and specific practitioner-initiated personalized nutrition intervention. Practice and policy implications were discussed urging attention to differences; a greater need for personalized nutrition interventions; removal of barriers to primary care nutrition coverage.

Internet and Email Utilization by a Nursing Home Resident: A Single Subject Design Exploratory Study for Improved Quality of Life for the Elderly
James E Smith  and Shawna E. Hibbler

The number of older people in America will increase dramatically during the 2010-2030. Research suggests moving into a resident/assisted-living or long-term care facility may lead to a sense of social isolation, loss of independence, and depression due to institutionalized living, especially for residents geographically removed from their family, friends, and community. Technology may allow aging adult residents in such facilities to maintain contact with their social support network. This may reduce the risks associated with aging and separation. Internet and email use by these aging residents will help empower and strengthen psychological, emotional and physical health for sustaining quality of life.
A single-subject design case study was used to explore if using the Internet and email might improve family, interpersonal and intrapersonal communication, the emotional and psychological health for one older adult long term care resident. Implications for research, development, education, and practice in human services and gerontology will be discussed.


Interdisciplinary Education in Emergency Preparedness: Assuring the Safety of Aging Populations
Linda L. Strong and Dori Taylor Sullivan

Aging is a global phenomenon. It impacts unequally, with this inequality attributable to such factors as gender, culture, education, socioeconomic status and access to primary and preventive care. Access to care and the quality of that care are significantly impacted by governmental support and regulations.  Most elderly live in developed countries; however, for a significant number life is not free of stress and struggle to meet basic needs. Elders in developing countries face even more challenges. Natural and man-made disasters increase the vulnerability of these populations through potential disruption of critical services. Currently there is a paucity of health and social services professionals educationally prepared to meet the various health and illness needs of aging populations. There is also a lack of new and practicing professionals trained for practice in emergency situations.  Disasters can, have and will overwhelm existing resources thus requiring effective and efficient responses to emergencies.

This paper will address the need for interdisciplinary education in emergency preparedness to assure the safety of aging populations.  Arguments will be made for educational initiatives that are competency based, threaded from preparatory to graduate education, intra- and interdisciplinary in design and developed from a standardized curriculum resulting in ongoing dialogue among health and social service disciplines.


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The West Indian Diaspora to the USA: Remittances and Development of the Homeland
Aubrey W. Bonnett

In a global world in which over 150 million people migrate from one country to another every year, the new Black Diaspora, now termed transnational and very circular in nature, is quite different from the initial Diaspora born of slavery, or that born of colonialism and post colonialism. It is argued, that within the late twentieth century, and now in the new millennium, the transnational forces of the new migrations have brought into play a different and new Diaspora which contributes more financially to the homeland, has redrawn the political interconnections between the “homelands” sand the host society, and which now play a pivotal intervening role in the reconstruction of “Home”.
Finally, it is contended that it behooves the homeland(s) of the sending societies, to establish facilitating, structural arrangements at the national governmental levels, to ensure that there is: transparency, mutuality, efficacy and accountability in these evolving relationships-especially in an increasingly globally interconnected world.


Dealing with Global Migration: Applying Two Sociological Theories
Paul R. Eberts

Global migrations are reaching major proportions that are both beneficial and detrimental in More Developed Countries as when migrants take unskilled jobs, but they also add to social services costs.  Jared Diamond in Collapse (2005) also maintains that global warming in the next 50 to 75 years will contribute to additional collapses of Less Developed Countries.  Local environmental collapses, including their agriculture, have resulted in certain LDCs’ political disruptions whose resulting migrations impact neighboring countries, threatening them to become failed states.  Many theorists also argue that environmental degradation from global warming is still reversible, even with available technologies.  But costs are massive and political will in both MDCs and LDCs to implement the necessary technologies is barely on the horizon.  Further, time may be running out, with 2050 being an agreed-upon breakpoint (four short decades away).  Classical Demographic-Transition and Political-Economy Development theories help in understanding these situations, and provide certain policy guidelines for addressing them.  To focus on LDCs’ urbanization processes by providing support to their governments in dealing with their many problems seems the best hope for stemming LDC-to-MDC migrations and avoiding further collapses.  Much depends on societies’ political organizational capacities to mobilize resources under short-span crisis conditions. 


A World-Systems View of Human Migration Past and Present: Providing a General Model for Understanding the Movement of People
P. Nick Kardulias and Thomas D. Hall

Since Homo erectus left Africa over a million years ago, to the constant transfer of people between contemporary states, migration has been a key human response to environmental, social, political, and economic changes.  Using world- systems analysis initially defined by Wallerstein and others to explain the rise of modern capitalism, we adopt a macro-view that sees human societies as interacting entities with constant contacts that engender cultural transformations across great geographic distances.  We argue that such a systemic approach clearly indicates that globalization is not a new phenomenon, but rather an extension of old processes. We discuss several general mechanisms that characterize migration within a systemic context. First, migration creates ripple effects which are felt over great distances as successive groups move and impinge on the territory of their neighbors; the potential effects can stretch across continents. Second, migration patterns tend to be cyclical. Population movements relieve stress on local resources, and it takes time to build to another critical threshold. Third, since the creation of the state at about 3500 B.C., boundaries, frontiers, and ethnic character have become critical identifiers. Contemporary states grapple with the process of ethnogenesis (creation of ethnic identity) and its consequences for defining citizenship, with its attendant rights and obligations. Vast increases in transportation efficiency have heightened the fluidity of boundaries and complicated the processes of ethnic identification. A world-systems perspective facilitates a comprehensive view of past and current migration, and thus places modern issues in a historical context.

Arguing Against Nativist Theory: The Positive Impact of Immigration in the United States  
Leleua Loupe and Acela Minerva Ojeda

America is a nation composed almost entirely of immigrants. Immigrants began arriving in the Americas since at least 1492 and in what is today the United States since the early 1500s, immigrants continue to arrive five hundred and fifteen years later. After a process of genocide, displacement, pacification and relative assimilation of indigenous peoples, Anglos, Dutch, French and Spanish immigrants began formulating and instituting public and government policies that would sanction the importation and exploitation of other minorities whose labor would develop the vast resources of America, generate incredible wealth, build its infrastructure and establish cities, towns and industries that would be administered by the dominant Anglo-groups. Immigrant groups have been exploited for their labor while often being used politically as a scapegoat by politicians to avoid addressing the need for reform in the political, economic and social institutions of America and maintain the subordinate positions of minority groups.

An Innovative Approach to Studying Migration: Applying Functional Mapping to Examine Global Migration Trends
John B. Noftsinger, Jr., Kenneth F. Newbold, Jr., Lincoln Gray and Benjamin T. Delp

This study will utilize functional mapping, a technique often used in medical fields that the authors believe can be applied to the study of migration to provide decision makers with an informative view of the social, political, and economic issues shaping migration policy.  Preliminary results of a study examining net migration data from 49 selected countries with the most migration either in or out has produced statistically significant results of migration patterns.  The authors will apply the technique of functional mapping to collect, analyze, and assess migration data from both developed and developing nations in order to illustrate migration patterns.  Through this study, it will be determined if migration patterns can be mathematically modeled as they occur around the globe based on functional mapping.  Data for this study will be retrieved from United Nations and the global data base of the Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalization and Poverty (Migration DRC).  Statistical information from this database includes International Net Migration data, which is available for 192 countries dating back to 1955 and is projected through 2050.  Countries that have similar migration patterns will be viewed as close together in this functional map, while countries with different patterns are far apart, regardless of the physical distance between the countries.  Therefore, functional mapping of migration patterns might have significant usefulness to policy makers.


Globalization and its Effect on National Security
Anna D. Simmons

     World migration has been going on for millennia. However, due to the impact of two great World Wars, numerous colonization struggles, civil wars, and geopolitical and ethnic divisions during the 20th century, mass global migration has reached an unprecedented magnitude facilitated by the ease of movement between Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Latin America, and the Western nations. This vast movement of immigrants into the more industrialized nations has caused a great strain on the economy as well as the national security of the host countries.
     The composition of the present mass migration involves migrants whose cultures are more disparate from the host country, even to the extent of imposing a threat to the security of that country.  In order for the national security of a host country to be less jeopardized, its government must focus much more on the human aspects of the immigrant societies: their language, history, culture, religious affiliation norms, family and/or tribal affiliations, as well as the international and internal relations of the country from which the migrants come. The primary purpose of this paper is the explication of the problems posed by this compositional change in global migration, particularly on its effects on National Security.  

Global Migration as a Solution to Worker Shortages in Industrialized Economies
Barbara R. Hemme

The United States and other industrialized countries are experiencing a severe shortage of workers in many industries including manufacturing and healthcare.  This shortage is expected to grow in the next ten years.  The current shortage is the result of socialization of the younger worker generation to shun jobs that are seen as manual labor and instead strive to obtain jobs that are white collar jobs, and an aging workforce. In order to fulfill the needs of certain sectors of the economy, industrialized countries should encourage global migration from newly industrializing economies and third world countries.  This migration may meet the need of employers who are experiencing shortages of workers.  Skilled workers could earn competitive wages which could be sent back to family in the native country, enabling that economy to grow. 
There are, however, detriments to this migratory pattern.  Language difference, including dialects, could be problematic.  In addition, patterns of group relations indicate that there may be stress between domestic workers and migratory workers, including interpersonal relations which may be compounded by cultural differences.  The willingness of both employers and employees to accept change and develop new methods of integrating immigrants is a key ingredient to the success of a global migration policy.

Shifting Tides: Migration in the Era of Globalization, Global Conflict, and Environmental Collapse     S. Rowan Wolf

The global movement of populations is going through an increasingly tumultuous and conflicted period. While the processes of globalization have in some ways made a smaller world, they have also increased the awareness of global inequality. The push and pull factors of migration have become complex and shifting as global economic streams shift, political conflict increases, and competition over shrinking resources intensifies. These changes raise the question of whether people are "immigrants" or "refugees." As climate chaos expands, so does the number of "climate refugees." This paper explores the economic, political and environmental sources of contemporary migration patterns; the ways immigrants are perceived and received, and poses suggestions for addressing the problems and possibilities.

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Reflective Assessment: Including Students in the Assessment Process
John B. Bond

Over the last decade alternative assessment strategies have become an important part of the debate regarding the reform and restructuring of American education.  The purpose of assessment should be to improve student learning, which means it should be integral to the teaching and learning process.  For this to occur, a seamlessness needs to exist between teaching, learning, and assessment through which students are empowered to take increased responsibility for their learning. 
Reflective assessment grows out of strong theoretical roots including ancient Greek thought, the philosophy of John Dewey, and cognitive constructivist learning theories.  Reflective assessment is a formative process through which students can experience assessment as a part of learning, rather than as a separate evaluative process.  


Using Literacy Integration to Communicate Scientifically (ULINCS)
Linda J. Button, Carol A. Fortino, Helen Gerretson, and Sharon Johnson

The ULINCS Project research describes how elementary teachers learned a model for integrating skills of mathematics, reading, and writing with the teaching of science which led to increased teaching skills and enhanced student achievement.  This joint university and school district project was funded by an Eisenhower Grant, and focused on educators working in teams to synthesize curriculum standards while planning and teaching an integrated unit. The evidence indicates that when two or more teachers at a grade level were involved in the ULINCS
Project, student achievement across the grade level improved.  These experienced elementary teacher participants attained a personal level of self-efficacy, and adopted dispositions that allowed them to work at a comfortable pace when dealing with district and statewide changes.  Although all schools and classes in the district evidenced achievement gains, the students in classes taught by the ULINCS teachers evidenced greater gains.  The research results document increases in student achievement as well as  teachers’ personal development.

Not surprisingly, there is a direct link between teacher thinking and student performance.  The “invisible” thinking skills of teachers help generate new possibilities and increase instructional flexibility.  When given a sustained professional development opportunity that challenges their content knowledge and pedagogical thinking, teachers may develop an increased capacity which leads to a high level of professional efficacy.


Effectiveness of Foldables™ Versus Lecture/Worksheet In Teaching Social Studies In Third Grade Classrooms
DiAnn B. Casteel and Melanie G. Narkawicz


Foldables™ are interactive graphic organizers which encourage student ownership of study material, provide a kinesthetic component to teaching strategies, and promote long-term retention of academic lessons. This study examined the use of Foldables™ to promote the reading and retention of social studies information with third grade students and to enhance their attitude toward social studies.  During the winter of 2007, two randomly selected third grade classrooms (N=56) served as treatment and control groups. The treatment group was taught (for two weeks) a social studies unit on history timelines using Foldables™ as presented by Dinah Might Adventures (2007), while the control group was taught using lecture and worksheets.  For a second two week unit on maps, a reversal occurred wherein the experimental treatment group from the first two weeks became the control group and the control group from the first two weeks became the experimental group.  Both control and treatment groups were given pre-tests and post-tests on cognitive and affective aspects of social studies.  For analyses, all treatment groups’ results were combined as were the results for the control groups.  Pretest scores, changes from pretest to posttest, and net gain scores were compared for the treatment and control groups in both domains (cognitive and affective).

Test results indicated that the group taught with Foldables™ had a significant increase in affective scores from pretest to posttest, while the control group did not.  The net gain score, however, was not significantly different (p=.056).  In the cognitive domain both groups had significant increases from pretest to posttest, with no significant difference in net gain scores.  These findings suggest that Foldables™ may have a more positive influence than lecture/worksheet in the affective domain while working as well in the cognitive domain.  Further research on the effectiveness of Foldables™ in other discipline areas and with other age groups is recommended.

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No Child Left Behind Strikes the Arts: How can we Restore a Balance Among the Studies in the Arts, Sciences, and Humanities?
Judith A. Fuller

      Most Americans actually understand the importance of an education rich in arts, science and humanities. But what they may not realize is that their children are not getting enough. Each day more and more of the arts and humanities are being drained from our nation’s school curriculums.
Studies have shown that the arts play a stimulating role in creativity and developing vital communities. They also have a crucial impact on our economy and are an important catalyst for learning, discovery, and achievement in our country.
      Our corporate and business leaders are stressing the need for recent graduates who are creative, innovative and have developed the capabilities for divergent thinking. They do not want to hire employees with a standardized mind. Top business executives believe that the arts education program can help repair weaknesses in American education and better prepare workers for the 21st century.

Balancing Innovation with Tradition: Maintaining a Relevant College Music Curriculum
Linda A. Marcel

The paper considers the innovations and impacts of technology on the fine arts.  It explores the effect of technology on how music is taught, studied, performed and created.  There is a brief historical account of the recent advances in personal computers, MIDI, synthesizers and music software.  The standard of technology competency, set by the National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) is discussed.  Other points of information include technology as a catalyst for institutional collaboration. Also considered are ways in which technology supports problem based and collaborative learning methods.   

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Questioning and Informational Texts: Scaffolding Students Comprehension of Content Areas
Ioney James and Tyrette S. Carter

This article focuses on the use of questioning strategies to promote comprehension of informational texts. It proposes that if students gain personally effective questioning strategies for comprehending informational text and a sense of self-efficacy in using these strategies independently, before they enter middle and secondary grades, their chances of school completion, and success will be enhanced.  It challenges teachers to model appropriate questions. In addition this article highlights three questioning strategies teachers can use to help student generate quality questions.

Strategies for Reaching Achievement
Gwendolyn V. King

The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of the 3 Ps:  Planning, Preparation and Perseverance, in reference to cognitive and social development within America’s society.  When employed as learning tools, these 3 Ps play a vital role in reaching achievement, and are essential in the accomplishment of  successful growth and development.
Data was collected among university students to analyze and support this theory.  The data results indicate that 50% or more of the sampled population are strategic readers with a strategy base and the appropriate schema to make sense of the text they read.  More than half of the sampled population values reading literacy.


Paradigm Shifts that Nurture Improved Middle School Reading Instruction
Edward Podsiadlik


     In order to achieve middle school literacy success over time in an urban school district with a high poverty rate and a growing population of English language learners (ELLs), the Chicago Public School (CPS) System has adopted a pedagogical strategy that relies on instruction that is data-driven (formative and summative), standards-based (utilizing state board of education standards and performance descriptors), and classics-rich.  This presentation elaborates on these three components as they have evolved over the past five years resulting in system-wide literacy improvement. 

     Major elements of this literacy reform include: innovative systems of instruction, professional development modules, systems of accountability, and the implementation of a comprehensive coaching network. The implications of this major literacy reform movement have impacted teachers and their individual classrooms, principals and their learning communities, and regional instruction officers and their comprehensive network of schools. In this way, the entire middle school network of teaching and learning in Chicago Public Schools has experienced steady growth over time. Consequently, as this literacy movement enters its sixth year, a paradigm shift is taking place in which instructional leadership is becoming the priority. In this way, the commitment to sustain middle school reading improvement and innovation is growing within a meaningful structure rooted in research, accountability, and high standards.


Conation: Cultivating the Will to Succeed Among Middle and High School Students
Ernestine G. Riggs

Agreat deal of research has been conducted regarding extrinsic and intrinsic motivationand which concept has the most effective impact on the learning process.  Teachers are constantly asking:  “How can I motivate my struggling or low achieving students to learn the essential skills and strategies they will need to be able to compete in this technological and global society?.”  How do I get them “to want to learn without the issuance of stickers, McDonalds’ coupons, and pizza parties?” 

Extrinsic motivation (external influence) is too frequently utilized to “encourage” students to learn.  However, there is a growing body of research (conation) that demonstrates the power of intrinsic motivation or “one’s inner will, drive, determination, tenacity, and perseverance to want to learn.  The will is an intangible place within each person that internally drives or compels one to want to learn for the personal value and self-satisfactory of learning. Conation creates change from within; this transformation has the potential of refocusing our paradigm regarding the impact and influence the will has in the process of teachers teaching and students learning.


Cognitive and Constructivist Strategies for Teaching about Language and for Providing Reading and Writing Instruction
C. Glennon Rowell and Barbara C. Palmer

College students learning about language and using this knowledge to learn how to teach reading and writing should participate in strategies that simulate systems in the language and strategies that they in turn will use in their own classrooms.  Cognitive and constructivist strategies are interactive and thus more powerful than the traditional lecture method of teaching college students, yet too often the traditional method prevails.
                Four interactive strategies that we have used successfully are cooperative learning, semantic feature analysis, nonsense story analysis, and fictitious writing systems.  Surveys, exams, and informal discussions with students following the use of these strategies indicate that students found these strategies to be very effective.


The Impact of Collaboration in Interactive Reading Settings
Frances Ann Steward, Sandra Hebert and Earl H. Cheek, Jr.


The purposes of this study are to discuss the visionary instructional planning through the social process as school wide faculty collaboration and prepare teachers through their identity connections of graduate reading application. The discussion exemplifies four collaborative instructional teams from Honduras Elementary School, Houma, Louisiana, U.S.A. then practitioners’ assignments from the Western Illinois University Moline, IL USA reading course, Teaching Reading in the Elementary School. In the graduate reading course, Teaching Reading in the Elementary School, students participated in required projects, reading assignments, and interactive settings to link to concepts. Several individual and group requirements provided opportunities for personal, academic, and experiential interaction: (1) Reflective written responses, (2) Functional reading creativity, (3) Autobiographical text, and (4) Strategic teaching. The functional reading connections were analyzed quantitatively with nominal and numeric data in grouped frequency polygons.


Documenting Characteristics of Highly Qualified Teachers
Lucille B. Strain

Primarily because it is an aspect of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), the concept of “highly qualified teacher” has become more important and more widely implemented throughout the schools of the United States.  NCLB  requires teachers in all  pertinent schools to be highly qualified.  Before NCLB, the concept was associated mainly with the earlier Elementary and Secondary Act which stipulated that all newly hired teachers in Title I schools must be highly qualified.  Early interpretations of the meaning of the phrase focused, largely, on teachers’ college education and knowledge of the subject matter they would teach.  In almost all cases, teachers’ knowledge of subject matter was determined by their performances on tests and the evidence of a baccalaureate degree. It is being increasingly recognized that characteristics of highly qualified teachers include, but are not limited to, their knowledge of subject matter and evidence of college graduation. 
An assessment means that can show the wide spectrum of teacher qualities should be used to determine teacher quality.  Portfolios as traditionally conceived and implemented can fulfill this need.  Electronic portfolios, however, are better suited to the task.  Graduate students at Bowie State University, Bowie, Maryland have effectively documented their characteristics as highly qualified teachers for several years through use of electronic portfolios.



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Gender equity: promoting healthy outcomes
Arthur W. Blume

                Increased gender parity has provided women in many industrialized nations with greater disposable income and health benefits that improve access to quality health care. It would be assumed that this progress would lead to better health outcomes across the board. However, many health conditions attributed to preventable causes such as poor eating habits, smoking, and alcohol use are on the rise among women in these countries. In some instances, the aforementioned unhealthy habits have been increasing at rates greater in women than in men. Psychological causes of these unhealthy habits may include greater accessibility, increased disposable income, observational learning (of peers and media), and stress due to acculturation into male-dominated cultures and to continuing inequities at work and home. Researchers have reported similar patterns among immigrant cultures when pressured to conform to majority culture norms and values. Balancing participation in traditional culture with participation in the majority culture has been found to contribute to better health outcomes in the minority communities. This paper concludes with an examination on how the research of minority communities may provide clues for promoting positive health outcomes while minimizing the unhealthy habits as women achieve parity with men.

Common Trends in U.S. Women College President Issues
Marcia T. Caton

This study documented the experiences of women college presidents in associate, baccalaureate, masters and doctoral institutions in the United States.  Using the quantitative and qualitative methods, the researcher looked at the women college presidents’ perceptions on how gender affects leadership abilities, professional relationships, and personal characteristics.  Participants surveyed included 46 women presidents from different institutions of higher education. The quantitative data were analyzed using the t-test.  During the qualitative analysis of the data, the responses from the survey were reduced to categories.  Following this, relationships that existed among the categories were established, and themes were developed.  The themed highlighted the meanings that woven through the narratives.  The data indicated that women presidents experienced discrimination and sexism in some colleges/universities.  The researcher proposes that the oppositional discourse of masculine versus feminine leadership is outdated and calls for a new conversation on the appropriate characteristics for effective leadership.

Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell: Lesbian Women and Work-Relationship Conflict
Traci Y. Craig

Don’t ask, don’t tell” policies are detrimental to the economy, the workforce, women, and their relationships. Requiring individuals to hide their sexual orientation is damaging to the workplace by creating a chilly work environment for lesbians.  In addition, the lack of support in the workplace and remaining closeted in order to keep one’s job may also be detrimental to personal relationships. The gender expression of lesbian women may lead to gender and sexual orientation specific issues that serve both as added stressors as well as buffers to the inherent conflict between work and family for women who must remain closeted at work.
A sample of 126 lesbian women were surveyed regarding their gender expression, their partner’s gender expression, relationship commitment, relationship satisfaction, relationship longevity, and level of disclosure of their lesbian identity in the workplace. Results indicate that gender expression impacts the ways in which being out as lesbian in the workplace may impact personal relationships. These policies and the resulting chilly work climate reach beyond the workplace and into the home.



God Wants Us to be Equal: Why Gender Matters in Feminism
Francesca Mallory Coley

I have struggled over writing this paper.  What hasn’t been said about this topic already? There are numerous historical studies on the rise of feminism and the response of Christianity to that rise. Same with feminism and Islam.  Right now, I am staring at a stack of books that address both:  Susan Hill Lindely’s You have Stept out of Your Place,” Mary Malone’s Women and Christianity, Irshad Manji’s The Trouble with Islam Today, Saba Mahmood’s Politics of Piety, and others as well.  What will my voice add to this area? What new insight do I have in this area? Then, it came to me: write what I know, the #1 strategy for any writer. And, what I know is this:  so much has been written about this topic historically and contemporarily, but feminism has lost its core: feminism is a gender issue, gender does matter, and by examining the history of feminism,  its battles with the  religious and scientific communities of the 19th and 20th centuries,   we can see where academic feminists of today, the bourgeoisie of scholarship, went awry and have made feminism a four letter word.




Combating Structural Disempowerment in the Stride Towards Gender Equality:  An Argument for Redefining the Basis of Power in Gendered Relationships
Michael G. Dudley

            All advances in social equity are predicated on two important considerations:  First, an internal drive emoting from those who benefit most directly from a greater stride towards equality, and second, the external forces relevant to the context in which equity is being sought.  The historicopolitical phenomenon of recapturing the momentum towards achieving women’s rights specifically—and gender equality more generally—is thus best understood from this dual perspective of internal and external agencies.  It is argued that the only plausible solution to the quagmire of gender inequality rests not within the confines of internal agency but in the wholesale adoption of progressive societal forces on the periphery.  This argument is further supported with a discussion of the paradox of structural disempowerment as a consequence of well-intended yet ill-advised social changes, such as it applies towards equality in education, employment, and sociocultural standing.

Creating a Global Consciousness by Embracing a World of Women: A Pedagogical Strategy Dedicated to Regaining the Momentum for Women’s Rights
Regina M. Edmonds

          If we are to regain some of the energy which characterized the Women’s Movement during its earliest years and again during the 1960’s and 1970’s, we must endeavor to raise awareness among young people about the work for social justice that remains undone and we must find ways to inspire them to re-embrace activism and to develop, what Smyser (2003) calls, “the humanitarian conscience.”  
                This task has become increasingly difficult in our current American culture, which strongly promotes the idea that equal opportunity exists for all and that those who fall behind do so primarily because they will not work hard and have made poor personal choices.  Paradoxically, most of the young people who have the skills and freedom to effectively advocate for social justice and gender equality are those who have suffered relatively little oppression themselves and whose life experiences thus far have affirmed the proposition that hard work does yield the promised fruits.
                 Given these realities, a large proportion of college age women do not identify themselves as feminists and they frequently argue that the problems addressed by the Women’s Movement essentially have been solved.  Although this mind set clearly challenges efforts to regain the momentum for women’s rights, it also provides us, as educators, with the challenge of developing new strategies to engage young women in the struggle for equality and social justice. Accordingly, this paper describes efforts to develop a pedagogy based on the idea that teaching young women about the obstacles to equality that still exist around the world will broaden their awareness of the work still undone, will generate a spirit of solidarity with women everywhere, will capture their youthful energy, and will infuse new momentum into the quest for women’s rights.

The Impact of Historical Expectations on Women’s Higher Education
Linda Eisenmann

This paper explores ways in which gendered approaches have limited women’s experience of higher education.  Using a historical lens with primary examples from the United States and Britain, it demonstrates how beliefs about women over time led to three expectations about their educational participation: initially, that women were not interested in schooling; later, that they were not capable of advanced education; and throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, that they were best educated in segregated settings with separate curricula.
The power of these beliefs has led to three continuing misinterpretations of women’s historical behavior: first, that they “feminized” certain fields, driving men out; second, that they have been minor and unsuccessful participants in science; and third, that in the early post-World War II era their educational participation was merely incidental.  In many ways, when women’s performance defied expectation, people tended to see what they expected rather than analyzing what the behavior actually meant, and women’s momentum in higher education remains inhibited by these earlier beliefs. 

Gender Equity: In Search of Diotima's Place With the Ancient Philosophers
Lynda George

            Within the text of Plato’s Symposium (Jowett, 1975) a dialogue on love takes place.  When it is Socrates turn to speak he defers to Diotima, his teacher.  He tells of her wisdom and shares what she taught him.  To present his argument he recounts their conversations by reenacting their dialogues and taking both his own and Diotima’s speaking parts.   As the dialogue unfolds we see Diotima not only teaching Socrates about love but also about wisdom, beauty, and the good.  These ideas are often under study by Socrates throughout the Platonic dialogues.  Diotima uses analogies to promote understanding and discussion as the means for discovery and understanding.  She appears to have a significant influence on Socrates and teaches him well.  This paper will briefly discuss what Diotima taught Socrates and its significance regarding his wisdom.
                This paper also explores how Diotima’s voice and identity were taken from her, in the fifteenth century, when she became a fictional character (Mialone, 1997).   Philosopher and educator Alan Bloom, for example, quickly and decidedly states that Diotima was not a real person in his commentary on the Symposium.  Just a few sentences later he describes this section of the Symposium as a turning point in Socrates by saying:  “This is one of several passages in Plato where Socrates describes how he stopped being a pre-Socratic philosopher...and became the Socrates we know” (Bloom, 1993, p.129).  This paper concludes with evidence of Diotima’s existence and her influence on ancient Philosophy.

Women in Leadership Positions in the Legal Profession: Do They Face a Glass Ceiling or Clogged Pipeline, or Is It Now a Ceiling of Lifestyle Bubbles?
Leah Witcher Jackson

                Women lawyers have made significant progress in a relatively short period of time to take their place in the profession alongside their male colleagues. However, barriers still remain. Women lawyers are not assuming leadership roles within the profession in proportion to their numbers. As women have successfully gained equal access into the legal profession, women lawyers have not experienced equal progress within the profession. Surveys and studies continue to draw attention to issues of prejudice and bias faced by women lawyers. The issues are complex and multifaceted. Unlike twenty years ago, fewer women feel actions are gender-based and more recognize it as a life-style choice that applies to men as well, though perhaps not equally to men.   Regardless of the reasons, we should all be concerned that women are not well represented in leadership roles within the profession whose oath calls for its members to fight for justice and champion the cause of the defenseless and oppressed. This should be a pointed concern for a profession whose elite have substantial social and political influence. Women’s attainment of positions of power and influence within the legal profession has larger ramifications for women’s access and opportunities throughout our society. 
                This article begins with a brief look at the history of women in the law and then discusses current common experiences of women in law schools, in the judiciary, and in the broader legal profession. Current initiatives to address women’s issues in the profession also are discussed. The article concludes with suggestions to law schools and law firms for pressing forward with progress


A Rediscovered Feminist Vision: Mary Wollstonecraft and   Global Education for Girls and Women
Trish Hawley

Abstract: Currently, much controversy exists in the opinions of scholars on the future of feminist identity and agenda. The one thing, however, that thinkers agree upon is the need to clarify this vision in the hope for greater international women’s advancement. In 1792 Mary Wollstonecraft argued in her Vindication of the Rights of Woman that men and women should be educated for the betterment of society; while feminist thought has expanded greatly since then the need still remains for equal educational opportunities for women all over the world.
This paper will argue that an option for strengthening women’s concerns today is to return to its ideological roots as put forth by Mary Wollstonecraft. She wrote, “Truth must be common to all, or it will be inefficacious with respect to its influence on general practice.” The simple, yet strong power of the first feminist thinkers was in their clarity of focus: true equality in educational pursuit for all people. Therefore, a brief survey will be offered of Wollstonecraft’s original arguments; current international concerns of equal education for girls and women; and suggestions on how rediscovering the first feminist arguments for education can contribute to advancing global women’s issues today.



Narration, Knowing, and Female Empowerment: Telling Stories, Authorizing Experience
Lolly Ockerstrom

Throughout history, women have told their stories, sometimes at great peril to themselves. The social codes that have defined women’s lives forced many women writers to adopt male pseudonyms. Poems of the Greek poet, Sappho, all but disappeared completely when Pope Gregory VII ordered her poems burned. The story of the banishment and destruction of her work, and (more importantly) the story of the survival of fragments from her poetry tells a larger narrative that underscores the power inherent in women’s narrations. Early in the twentieth century, Virginia Woolf (refused admission to the Bodleian because of her gender) advised women in Three Guineas to become a community of outsiders and to tell their own stories.
The paper argues for the role of narration as knowledge in education and in public policy. Advocating “radical storytelling,” the author outlines strategies for setting up opportunities for ordinary women to speak. By naming the event, by telling the story, women empower themselves. The paper draws from case study research in which teachers study their own classrooms, including their own participatory roles. The paper also examines the practices of the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), a Quaker nongovernmental organization that brings together delegations of ordinary women to meet face-to-face with policymakers on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C. in order to tell their stories of the impact of policy on their daily lives.

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Women Superintendents in Iowa: Where is the Momentum? Reflections of a National Malaise
Jill Olsen

The United States Census Bureau characterized the position of school superintendent as being the most male-dominated executive position of any profession in the United States (Glass, Bjork, & Brunner, 2001). Paul Houston, president of the American Association of School Administrators (AASA) has stated that the future of school system leadership belongs to women (2004). Research completed in 2005, and updated in 2006, reflected that the representation of women in the superintendency in the state of Iowa is increasingly more discrepant than the national average. In the past two years the percentage of female superintendents in the state of Iowa has continued to decrease. Based on interviews with the three major search firms in the state, interviews with female superintendents and a quantitative statewide survey this paper articulates insights about why this discrepancy may be occurring. These findings could be applicable across the field of K-12 education. The issue extends beyond gender issues to a consideration of justice.

Vassar Class of 1966: Women In Between the Traditional Roles for Women and the Feminist Revolution
Lucille M. Pritchard, Kathryn Sajdak and  Susanna Margolis

 The purpose of this study is to examine the lives of the eight women who were originally interviewed for the June, 1966 Newsweek article in order to document the personal and professional paths that these women actually took since they graduated from college. By utilizing a case study design and subsequent personal interviews, the study was conducted to provide a better understanding of their aspirations and achievements as pioneers in the Second Wave of the Women’s Movement that was just emerging as they obtained their degrees.

Questioning Collaboration in Feminist Research: A Women and Poverty Research Model Reconsidered
Katherine A. Rhoades

Poverty in the United States remains an issue that predominately, though not exclusively, affects women and children.  According to a study released in 2006 by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research, since 1995 the poverty rate among women in 15 of the states in the United States has increased, and in another 15 states women’s poverty fell by less than 1.0 percentage point, compared with 1.0 percentage points nationally (Hartmann, Sorokina, and Williams 2006).  These statistics cast a foreboding shadow on the purported success of   “work not welfare” reforms that swept the United States beginning in the mid 1990s. 
Drawing on a decade of efforts by the Women and Poverty Public Education Initiative (WPPEI), established by the University of Wisconsin System Women’s Studies Consortium Outreach Office in 1994, this essay analyzes the feminist collaborative research model that framed WPPEI’s longitudinal, in-depth interview study of 160 women who were transitioning off welfare in eight Wisconsin communities at the dawn of these reforms.  Ultimately, the analysis supports calls for women to unite across their differences to collaborate for political and public policy change, even as it weaves a cautionary tale about the ubiquitous force of power imbalances that may tarnish this ideal.

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Women’s Rights and Women’s Writing
Julie L. Smith-Hubbard

This essay argues that Virginia Woolf’s alternative aesthetics anticipate Clarice Lispector’s experimental writing and culminate in Hélène Cixous’s anti-foundational thinking about writing.  Woolf in The Waves and Lispector in Água viva (The Stream of Life) introduce compelling questions about the desire, need, and right to write, and the living waters of the writing performance.  Freedom is freedom from male discourse and domination, masculine cultural ideas, and the “subject.”  Woof and Lispector dismantle totalizing modes of thinking in order to transfigure themselves and others in “the act of writing.”
Writing against phallologocentrism, challenging oppression and injustice, reconstituting subject-other relationships in The Waves and Água viva, Woolf and Lispector perform Cixous’s écriture féminine (women’s writing), free themselves from traditional gender constitutions, and focus on writing as sensory response, exploring possibilities of language, disorganizing to organize, transfiguring reality with new signs, generating new modes of thinking and being while writing the “other.”  Anticipating Derrida’s deconstruction and exploring the sense of touch, Woolf and Lispector are able to break the silence and write genesis according to a woman

Poor Mothers’ Rights to Education: Access and Support for Post-secondary Education in Aotearoa/New Zealand and the United States
Jill McLean Taylor

Following the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), commonly known as welfare reform, women in the United States who were previously eligible to attend college while receiving welfare benefits now need to meet mandatory work requirements.  Public discourse on social welfare and welfare reform holds up an ideal of equal respect and reciprocity that is consistent with social justice, but this change and others reflect the difficulty for mothers receiving benefits as they attempt to gain an education and to move toward self-sufficiency and equity in terms of earning potential.  Despite Article 26:1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights stating that “Everyone has the right to education…and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit,” access to education for poor mothers is severely limited.

In the context of the administration’s inconsistent rhetoric surrounding family values, marriage incentives, and same sex marriage I examine policy implications resulting from the findings of a 2001 qualitative study with mothers attending, or having recently attended, post-secondary institutions in Boston, Massachusetts and Auckland, Aotearoa/New Zealand.  Interviews highlight how access in New Zealand is supported to some degree, although in both places women struggle with insufficient cash allowances, a lack of clear information regarding benefits, and an underlying philosophy that holds poor women responsible for their circumstances. 


Gender microaggressions in higher education: Proposed taxonomy and change through cognitive-behavioral strategies
Karen B. Schmaling

The underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in higher education is well documented.  There are a number of potential reasons for this gender disparity, but gender discrimination appears to be an important maintenance factor.  The paper proposes a taxonomy of gender microaggressions, which are forms of gender discrimination, to help identify and validate common discriminatory experiences of women in the academy.  Potential change strategies are suggested to address gender microaggressions that are informed by methods familiar to clinical psychology.  Examples are presented of the gender microaggression taxonomy and change strategies.  A number of opportunities for further research are identified.

Birth, Marriage, Honor & Poverty: Ramifications Of Traditional Hindu Culture & Custom On Modern Indian Women
Sandra Wagner-Wright

Abstract:  This paper focuses on two extreme practices of violence against women that occur most commonly in northern India: son preference and dowry-related deaths.  Both practices occur in the private, domestic realm and are based on customary indigenous practices allegedly built upon Hindu religious teaching.   Son preference and dowry-related deaths occur at all caste, class, and economic levels and have been impossible to eradicate, despite prohibitive legislation.

                Moreover, the choice of female feticide to support family planning on the basis of son preference and the alleged participation of the husband’s female relatives in the dowry-related death of his bride represent crimes against females that cannot be carried out without female cooperation.  This raises the question of the extent to which women exercise agency in committing female feticide and attacking young brides versus the argument that such alleged cooperation is a function of patriarchal oppression.






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The Separation of Church and State: Myths, Mantras, Mandates
J. Timothy Allen

The topic of the Roundtable Discussion ”The Separation of Church and State: Decline and Fall?” carries with it an implied assumption: that there has always been a separation between church and state in America and that it is threatened today. Previous scholarship, cultural debates, political harangues, and religious sentimentalism have explored the legal and historical sides of the debate yet the same answers are always reached: there either has or has not been a separation of church and state in America’s history. Indeed, often scholars have seen a definite connection between both church and state that evolved into a strict secular separation between church and state.
                This study examines the issue from the mythical side as opposed to the political, historical, or legal aspects of the issue. The mythos surrounding the phrase “Separation of Church and State” reveals a nationalistic religion struggling to emerge in America. As this nationalistic religion evolves, religious mantras and legal mandates backed with religious fervor resound throughout American history. This paper argues that, when these phrased are studied collectively, there has never been any real separation of church and state in America. Instead, there has always been a close connection between church and state, as revealed  by the religious use of myths, mantras, and mandates that reveal a nationalistic religion that has wavered between the secular and the sacred.

Resolving The Religious Freedom Issue Of The Ecumenical Patriarchate
Frank Marangos

Abandoned since the Armenian genocide of 1915, the Armenian Orthodox Church of Surb Khach (Holy Cross) was reopened on March 29, 2007 after undergoing a high-profile restoration (Armenian News Network, 2007).  Located on the island of Akhtamar in eastern Turkey’s Lake Van, Ankara hopes the highly publicized renovation of its country’s best known Armenian ecclesiastical building will improve tense relations with Europe, the United States and neighboring Armenia. The reopening of Surb Khach came two months after Turkey’s most outspoken Armenian journalist, Hrant Dink, was shot dead in Istanbul. The event also occurred amid continuing pressure from the European Union on Turkey to improve its policies of religious freedom.

Separation of Church and State:  Constitutional Policy in Conflict
Angela Oberbauer

Christian and Conservative Right advocacy groups are especially in conflict with Constitutional Policy statements within the First Amendment: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or   prohibiting the free exercise thereof….” known as the “Establishment” and “Free Exercise Clauses”.  Fundamentalist in the Christian Coalition, the Catholic Opus Dei, and Neo-Conservatives, are among those who believe morality in society must be restored through God Sovereign policies.  Their dogma supports an Authority, hierarchal economic power, unusual reverence toward wealth, and tight control over society by  eliminating democratic advancement. Their plan includes incremental deletion of laws that protect   “Separation of Church and State.” Vital to implementing this bold  plan,  is placing followers [activists] into prominent positions within state  and  federal governments---the Executive, Congress,  and Supreme Court, and into education, economic and communications institutions.   The activist’s role is to  use their position to reverse policies [through subtle or even blatant political processes] that hamper fundamentalist and  conservative aspirations to secure  closer State and Church ties, thereby facilitating compliant political, social, and  economic order that reflect their vision for a moral society.


The Dover Question: will Kitzmiller v Dover affect the status of Intelligent Design Theory in the same way as McLean v. Arkansas affected Creation Science?
Darlene N. Snyder

The judgment that took place in the United States Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania identified as Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District , may signify the legal future of Intelligent Design Theory.  While the precedent set in Kitzmiller is only applicable to the Middle District of Pennsylvania, history demonstrates that the research, testimony, definitions, and subsequent decisions realized in U.S. District courts, have been cited to facilitate resolutions in U.S. Supreme Court cases.
The McLean v. Arkansas Bd. of Ed. findings for Creation Science is a specific example of a U.S. District Court case impacting a Supreme Court Decision, Edwards v. Aguillard. Consequently, the Kitzmiller judgment may contribute substantially to a Supreme Court decision concerning Intelligent Design Theory as a scientific concept. This paper explores the soundness of Judge Jones’ decision and investigates parallels between the McLean and Kitzmiller rulings.  From this analysis predictions are made anticipating an unfavorable legal decision awaiting Intelligent Design Theory at the Supreme Court level.



The Role of the Byfield Parish Church in Forming the American Mind
William E. Boylan

The Declaration of Independence is known by all, but who ever heard of the Essex Result? John Adams is a well known American name, but who has heard of Theophilus Parsons? School children learn of the Declaration of Independence, the names of the presidents, and are taught the wisdom of balancing the powers of government. The Constitution of the United States was designed to prevent tyranny. Behind the U.S. Constitution lies the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. In 1780, Massachusetts adopted a constitution in which the executive, legislative, and judicial powers separated each other’s control. Credit for the framework of the Massachusetts Constitution goes in large measure to John Adams. Almost unknown is the fact that two years before the adoption of the Massachusetts Constitution, the Essex Result showed the way to balance the branches of government. Theophilus Parsons, the author of the Essex Result, is America’s forgotten founding father. Who was Theophilus Parsons and how was the hand of God manifest in his life?

 “Every Church Is the Same:  Control, Destroy,  Obliterate Every Good Feeling”:  Philip Pullman and the Challenge of Religious Intolerance
Richard C. Burke

No children’s books since C. S. Lewis’s Chronicles of Narnia have combined popular success and religious advocacy as effectively as Philip Pullman’s His Dark Materials (1995-2000).  But quite unlike the Christian-inspired Chronicles, Pullman’s fantasy series is unreservedly hostile towards organized religion.  How many children’s books, after all, kill off God?  Or include a statement like this one:  “The Christian religion is a very powerful and convincing mistake . . .” (Amber Spyglass 441)?  And no other religion gets Pullman’s approval, either:  “Every church is the same:  control, destroy, obliterate every good feeling. . . . For all its history [religion] has tried to suppress and control every natural impulse” (Subtle Knife 50). 

Blinded by Belief: Faith versus Freedom, the Opening Crusade of the 21st Century
William A. Cook

The hotel television set glowed eerily in the dark room as we settled in for the night, having arrived from Los Angeles late in the day on the 20th of March, 2003. Our hotel, a short distance from St. Nicholas’s Church on the Mala Strana side of the Moldau River in Old Prague, offered satellite reception all the way from home, for the TV channel was decidedly American, the Trinity Broadcasting Network. There on the screen, we witnessed dozens of the faithful crowded around a huge American flag stretched horizontally to the floor, held on each side by chanting, bowing and weaving Christians, faces lifted to the Lord, eyes shut, right arms held high while others pushed from behind to touch the sacred relic. The singing reached a crescendo as they ever so gradually lifted old glory above their raised heads, tears cascading from their eyes, calling upon God Almighty to protect America on this eve of battle, for, on an accompanying channel, the green inscrutable screen of “Shock and Awe” was underway.


Waxing Faith, Waning Trust: Ethics in Government, Religious Persecution and Declining Religious Support
Timothy J. Demy

Throughout the West in recent years there has been a decrease in religious enthusiasm for national government.  To be sure, the so-called religious right in the United States has maintained a strong presence in national elections but even its prominence and power has diminished.  Elsewhere, and especially in non-democratic nations there has also been a decrease in many, though not all nations, from their constituents.  This phenomenon is not explained by any single cause, but rather, by a combination of individual and community beliefs, dissatisfaction with present administrations and policies, ethical behavior by elected government officials, and many cases, deliberate actions by governments to harass or suppress religious communities.  This essay looks at several global and religious trends, especially religious persecution, affecting the ability of governments to maintain legitimacy internally and externally. When persecution occurs, both the state and persecuted group are at risk.  Strong religious convictions and strong political convictions and support for an individual’s nation need not conflict.  However, the responsibility for sustaining such support is shared between the citizen and the state.

Separation of Church and State: The Myth
Olfat El-Mallakh


In every culture signs of religion abound. For religion is one of the fundamental components of the shaping of any civilization. The concept of separation of Church and State might have worked beautifully in America for a while. But then globalization happened…the melting pot melted becoming colored mosaics.

Nowadays, as a matter of survival, people are insisting on their roots and establishing their identities. For individuals, religion is a personal identity. And always for nations, religion proved to be a political entity. Marxism’s failure, for the most part, was the insistence on denying the existence of a supreme being and negating individuality.

Examining some major world religions and philosophies will highlight the difficulty of the concept of separation of church and state to take root in the global world. Notice that on the American dollar, the world’s favorite currency, a prominent phrase reads: “In God we trust.” Jesus preached a separation of church and state, “Render…unto Caesar the things which be Caesar’s and unto God the things which be God’s.” However, Jesus, after all, insisted that His Kingdom is not of this world!


Going to Hell in a Handbasket: Courts and Religion in America
Susan P. Fino

 [O]ften the news of American public schools is about plummeting SAT scores, gay and lesbian clubs, body piercing, robbery and sexual assaults of teachers and students, along with an infusion of radical anti-American and antiwar bias of the liberal teachers’ popular culture.  And sometimes we see news of other things that are more heartbreaking, such as the tragedies at Columbine, Jonesboro, Springfield, Paducah, Pearl and other places.  And yes, we know where it all comes from (Robertson, 2004, 105).

Where “it” all seems to come from are the decisions American federal and state courts, in which, according to Robertson and other leaders of the New Christian Right, religion and morality have been banished from the schools and the public square. The American judiciary’s abandonment of “Biblical Natural Law” beginning is the early 1960s is responsible for the rise of sexually transmitted diseases among the young,  the decline of educational achievement, the erosion of family stability and the increase in the number of reported violent crimes (Barton, 2000, 242-246).  The decisions of the federal courts are particularly alarming because they are the product of an unelected, unaccountable set of liberal elites in black robes.  These decisions thwart the will of the representatives of the people thereby undermining the core principle of a republican form of government. From the floor of the United States Senate, Richard Shelby denounced “activist judges” who have “worked diligently to restrict our rights to express our religious beliefs under the guise of separation of church and state.”  Every December Americans get to see for themselves the latest forays in the secular “War on Christmas,” in which courts seems to be allied with the wrong side. For the New Christian Right the time is now to end the “judicial tyranny”  (Traditional Values Coalition, 2005).


The Evolution-Creationism Debate: A Case Of Irreconcilable Differences Or Of Cyclic Dispute?
Linda M.K. Johnson

By media accounts, there are only two camps in the struggle between evolution and creationism and no middle ground exists.  The search for a common ground in which an individual could educate him/herself about the opposing views led to a survey of the science and religion inventory of local bookstores.  The book offerings of two large chain stores and one Christian specialty store were categorized by topic, extremeness of the viewpoint presented, and whether or not an understanding of the evolutionary process was assumed. 
In the chain stores, the overwhelming majority of science books assumed an understanding of evolution (98% and 84%) while only a single book (of 103 surveyed) at the Christian store made the same assumption.  Most books in all stores were either very gentle or very harsh in their approach to the topic, regardless of viewpoint, although more creationist texts were extreme in their harshness than were the evolutionist texts.  No single book was found in all three stores and few of the more moderate authors were represented.  A physical common ground will be difficult to find in bookstores, although mainstream stores provided a broader range of views than the specialty store.

The American Religion and All That Mumbo-Jumbo: The Gnostic, the A-Gnostic and the Pagan in American Literature
Donald F. Larsson

Fifteen years ago, on his way to becoming a one-man culture industry, the literary critic and scholar Harold Bloom took stock of what he might have called his own agon with a country that had just concluded the First Gulf War, presided over by President George H.W. Bush, who had won election in part by allying himself with the Christian Right.  While accurately noting that that particular war was “not one in which Islam was involved spiritually, on either side” (15), Bloom nonetheless saw the struggle as an expression of a particular set of American beliefs that he goes on to describe in his book The American Religion.  In the first Bush’s justifications for the first Gulf War, as well as in his separate appeals to anti-abortion Christians (“waving the flag and the fetus,” as Bloom puts it), Bloom hears a battle-cry “against whatever denies the self’s status and function as the true standard of being” (16), curiously anticipating in 1992 the rhetoric of the next President Bush, who would use words similar to Bloom’s in defining the War on Terror after September 11, 2001, and later in justifying the second war against Saddam Hussein

Why We Shouldn’t ‘Teach the Controversy’ in Science
Edmund A. Marek, Mary Carrington, David P. Everson, Aaron Johnson, and Lee M. Mescolotto

There is a controversy raging in the United States between proponents of the theory of evolution and advocates of special creation/intelligent design (ID). Evolution is the unifying theory of the life sciences and evidence supporting evolution comes from repeatable experimentation and observation. ID is a type of special creation, which is based on the Biblical creation account. Evolution and special creation are complex, formal, abstract concepts soundly understood by few.
The current evolution-ID controversy stems, in part, from a lack of scientific literacy among citizens. Scientific literacy requires content knowledge and an understanding of the processes by which content is discovered. Teaching the controversy in the science classroom is inappropriate because there is no scientific support for ID. The differences between evolution and intelligent design should not preclude dialogue between supporters of each.

Separation of Church and State:  The American Dilemma
Sam Wescoat McKinstry

Government’s relationship with religion in the United States is specifically addressed in Article VI, which states that no religious test shall be required as a qualification for any office or public trust in the United States and Amendment I, which states that Congress shall make no law establishing religion or preventing the free exercise of religion.  As clear as these constitutional provisions might be, there are four basic questions which continually arise:
1.  What led the Framers of the original Constitution and the members of the select committee charged with drafting what became the Bill of Rights to constitutionally preclude an established church of religious dogma.

2. What in the Twentieth Century, particularly beginning with the mid century era, thrust the U.S. Supreme Court onto center stage in issues surrounding both the “free exercise” and “separation clauses”?

3. What factors influence the U.S. Supreme Court to use narrow or strictg construction of constitutional language, while at other times the Court applies a more loose or liberal construction.

4. What role has federalism continued to play?

The paper seeks to answer each of these questions by examining the writings of men such as James Madison and Thomas Jefferson, by reflecting upon the important role of the United States Supreme Court in deciding the issue of what is/what is not policy infringing upon the First Amendment, by reviewing relevant cases and their decisions, as these have expanded the meaning of the establishment and free exercise clauses, and ultimately concluding that freedom of and freedom from religion are the two supporting legs of religious freedom and that without both, religious freedom is impossible.


Imperial Aspirations, Religious Freedom and Public Education
Rev. Peter O. Plagge

Abstract:  The question raised by the first amendment guarantees of religious freedom and the right to public education  constitutes today's religious problematic. Postcolonial theory, now being explored and utilized in some contemporary theological lines of inquiry, analyzes the hybrid interactions of oppressed and oppressor in imperial situations and reveals ontological and existential differences (not complete, but shared) which have parallels in the history of Christianity as it has moved to consolidate its intellectual, political and financial forces behind a dogmatic and dominative front.  This idolatrous and anti-rationalist aspiration splits Christian identity and self-understanding, allowing a deconstruction and concomitant reconstruction yielding a rationalist account of the theist claims which the Christ-encounter entails.  This view is considered as the liberal humanist commitment and is found not to be at odds with the preaching and teaching of Jesus’ “Kingdom of God” when this kingdom is critically understood in its ancient Galilean setting but is instead formally identified with a theism which is in principle comprehensive and so abstractly understandable.    The move to embrace this conviction defends a plurality of religions  within the constraints of civil political discourse and avoids the trap of mere liberal tolerance.

The Impact of the Faith-Based and Community Initiative on Rural Mental Health Care
Jay Poole

President George W. Bush established the Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives in 2001 and eventually, by executive order, set a precedent for federal agencies to revise their policies to allow faith-based organizations to apply for federal grants.  This initiative made over three billion dollars available to organizations that had heretofore been prohibited from accessing public funds due to their religious affiliation.  As the initiative has developed, there seems to be a predominance of evangelical and fundamentalist Christian organizations involved in the projects that public funds support including services to those with mental illness.  Evangelical and fundamental Christian ideology includes strong beliefs that people’s problems are often the result of moral failure and the solution to many of life’s problems lies in accepting Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior.  Viewing mental illness as moral failure has damaging implications for people with mental illness and for the public’s understanding of mental illness.  Additionally, the faith-based initiative is grounded in the principles of privatization, thus shifting services to those with mental illness into the private sector.  As services are privatized, the fragile system of public mental health care in rural areas is often diminished or eliminated.  Research shows that mental health professionals have a long history of practicing largely in urban areas, thus reducing the likelihood that private providers will serve rural areas.  If, through the faith-based initiative, care for the mentally ill in rural areas is left to religion-based organizations, many people who have very complex biologically and environmentally based disorders may be left with limited, non-existent, or potentially harmful care.  This paper examines some of the complex questions and issues raised by the faith-based and community initiative as related to mental health care. 

Evolution: Do the Eyes Have It?
Stephen L. Reinbold

            Darwin pondered if the eye could not be explained by evolution by natural selection then his theory would be declared false.  Since then much has been written on evolution of the eye, and the eye has come up again in debates on Intelligent Design.  Two views have been held in regard to eye evolution: a single origin of eye-building genes with subsequent divergence to form camera-type and compound eyes or multiple origins from many genes providing a framework that allowed convergence on a few basic eye types.  A wide spectrum of animals has opsin-coding genes and genes capable of forming eyes.  The sea urchin has hundreds of genes homologous to those expressed in vertebrate eyes.  Genes that do not ordinarily build eyes could be recruited for that purpose.  To the Intelligent Design proponent, even conceding that anatomical eye evolution can be accounted for, and that the proteins in eyes could evolve from other sensory-related proteins, the origin of the first sensory pathway still needs to be explained.  So do the “eyes” have it on the question of evolution?  Surely on the anatomical level, Darwin has been vindicated, but on the cellular level many questions remain and proponents of Intelligent Design can still be expected to say nay.

The Example of Ireland and America: Politics, Religion and Sectarian conflict During Ireland’s ‘Long’ Eighteenth Century.
Robert Smart

In December 1798, a 27 year old American novelist from Pennsylvania named Charles Brockden Brown sent a copy of his first novel, Wieland; Or The Transformation. An American Tale, to a very unlikely reader, the then vice-president of The United States Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson, the architect and author of American republican secularism, was an unlikely reader of Brown’s first novel because of the story it told.


No Natural Rights, No Liberal State, Treitschke and Locke
Christopher Vasillopulos
                Without a natural rights based constitution, a liberal state is a contradiction in terms.  No definition of liberalism allows for an absolute state, a state which admits of no limits, no check on what it believes is in its interest, whether legally expressed or not.  The Public Interest, the Will of the Majority, National Security—not these or any other concepts which are invoked to override limitations to the Power State’s activities can operate in a liberal state, for in their application, these concepts and many others undermine the liberties essential to a liberal state.  Non-liberal states accept this forthrightly. They speak of trade-offs between liberty and security and the like, assuming in the bargain that rights are always subject to the state’s Will or to the state’s understanding of the public interest.  Treitschke is a classic example of a self-proclaimed liberal who believed in the absolute sovereignty of the State.  By contrast, the natural rights theorist, John Locke believed that liberalism admitted of no state determined rights.  Rights are natural, ordained by Creation and cannot in principle be subject to emendation or compromise by any sovereign authority. 

Religion and Politics in the United States: Money, Free Speech, and Deference to America’s Religious Heritage
Stephen J. Wayne

Church and state in the United States are not and have never been completely separate from one another. Government provides aid to religious organizations for their nonreligious activities, grants them tax benefits as nonprofit, charitable entities, protects their freedom of belief, speech, and most of their religious practices, and allows them to participate in most political activities with the exception of campaigning for specific candidates for office.
Most people approve of this government-church relationship; they regard it as part of America’s political heritage, consistent with its constitutional strictures, and beneficial to the moral and ethical fabric of society.

The Democrats Embrace God: An Unqualified Blessing?
Gwyneth I. Williams

 Since the rise of the religious right in the 1980s, the Republican party has been the political party most closely associated with the language of religion, morality, and family values.  After the 2004 elections, however, many Democratic candidates have been embracing the language of religion, engaging in personal faith testimonies and attempting to reframe the notion of ‘morality’ within political discourse.  Along with liberal religious activists, these Democrats argue that faith testimonies are appropriate within the public realm and that true religious (Christian) values are inherent in social issues such as fighting poverty and providing universal healthcare.
This paper attempts to assess the Democratic prospects for electoral success with this approach by unpacking the elements of the liberal religious strategy and speculating as to its possible positive and negative effects on gaining votes. Some swing voters who embrace the Democratic economic agenda but are uncomfortable with rigid secularism may respond to this strategy and vote for Democrats. But the secular base of the party may well be so distressed at the turn toward ‘God talk’ that they withdraw from active support. At the root of the Democrats’ dilemma are competing beliefs over the appropriate role for religion in political discourse.


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Allusions to God in Literature Back to top

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Civility In C. S. Lewis And J. R. R. Tolkien
C. N. Sue Abromaitis

            Without a belief in a Natural Law that a personal God reveals to all humans, they are condemned to live in a society in which power is the determiner of behavior and, thus, civility and its fruits are non-existent.
                In their fiction, letters, and critical writings, Tolkien and Lewis reveal their belief that the Natural Law provides an objective standard of morality necessary if men and women are to eschew barbarism and its fruits, including violence and rudeness. Lewis’s reflections on this subject are also present in his sermons and apologetics, forms in which Tolkien did not write. 
                Their fiction fulfills the classical ideal that literature pleases and instructs, for in their secondary worlds, they create characters, actions, and settings that embody the results of following the Natural Law or denying it.  In Middle Earth Tolkien involves their senses as readers respond to the good and evil characters and lands.  Inhabitants shape their worlds, as in the beautiful Rivendell and Lorien, by their adherence to a law beyond their individual desires or, as in the hideous Mordor and Isengard, by their imposing these desires on the world around them.
                Similarly in Narnia and in Bracton College and environs, Lewis presents to readers environments in which good characters ultimately achieve beauty and evil characters are marked by ugliness of form and deed.
                Both authors present the struggle for civility in which each generation much engage.  Each age must participate in that struggle so that the next may have the means to carry out its role in this universal duty.


Spiritual Redemption Through Love as a Recurring Theme  in 20th Century American Literature
Paula Bennett

                At the dawn of the twentieth century, it appeared that religious faith would soon be obsolete.  Advances in science and technology had rendered belief in supernatural causes for natural phenomena untenable and had cast doubt on the idea that there’s a divine plan for human lives.  Instead, the latter half of the twentieth century brought a backlash of renewed religious fervor both in America and in the Middle East.  The rise of Islamic extremism in the Middle East is in many respects the mirror image of the rise of the Christian Right in the United States; both reject science in favor of faith and would like to turn back the clock to a time when science served religious dogma.  Although the events of 9/11/2001 have been interpreted as an attack on Christianity by Islam, in fact, the destruction of the twin towers was a blow by a religious culture against the central symbols of a predominantly secular one.  The Christian Right shares radical Islam’s rejection of secularism and has explained the 9/11 attacks and various natural disasters since then as being God’s way of punishing America for its corrupt and godless culture.  Even more important than their shared abhorrence of secularism is the fact that both the Islamic extremists and the Christian Right have moved away from the “Ethic of Reciprocity,” or the Golden Rule as it is more commonly called, as the guiding principle of human behavior.  Right wing fundamentalists have returned to the God of the Old Testament as the model of how to handle differences in belief at home and abroad.  Today, America seems more deeply divided than at any time since the Civil War and more profoundly alienated from most of the rest of the world than at any previous time in its history.  Both at home and abroad, America has become embroiled in what many people interpret as a holy war between believers and infidels—whether it’s the Judeo-Christian West against Islamic jihadists in the Middle East or the “religious right” against “godless humanists” here in America.  The religious right claims to hold a monopoly on moral values, arguing that morality cannot exist without belief in God.  In their view, “Godless liberals” are by definition amoral, sinful, and corrupt—the main source of moral decay within American society.  These two factions are in conflict over virtually every aspect of America’s domestic and foreign policies. 

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Speaking with the “Tongues of Men and of Angels”: Addressing Human Conflict through Christian Charity in the Short Fiction of Herman Melville
Rosemary D. Cox

The Apostle Paul articulates three of the central tenets of Christianity: “Now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of these is charity” (1 Cor. 13:13). Paul’s exhortation, with its emphasis on charity, may provide a key to ameliorating human strife today. But charity can assume many guises, sometimes exacerbating the very suffering it is designed to alleviate. Herman Melville addresses this paradox in two paired stories—“The Two Temples” and “Poor Man’s Pudding and Rich Man’s Crumbs”—and more poignantly in his tale “Bartleby, the Scrivener.” Juxtaposing a fashionable church in New York against a respectable theater in London, “The Two Temples” satirizes institutional religion and failed charity. Empty charity is also the focus of “Poor Man’s Pudding and Rich Man’s Crumbs” where an impoverished American couple prefer to starve rather than injure their pride, while a London mob mocks charity by fighting over scraps from the Lord Mayor’s banquet. In “Bartleby” the lawyer-narrator’s conscience impels him to assist his employee—with disastrous consequences, leaving both the narrator and the reader to ponder the merits of charity. This paper will consider the Christian dilemma these stories pose, as well as the ramifications on global conflict.

Defining Religion, Spirituality and Human Experience
Anthony T. Padovano

This paper is a thought-experiment, less a research endeavor, more an essay or analysis.  It seeks a context for the Oxford Round Table discussion “Allusions to God in Literature.”  It searches for the infra-structure which makes such a topic possible.  It weaves together three broad and gossamer threads of thought, not easily or absolutely definable: religion, spirituality, human experience.  It assumes that the tapestry cannot hold together unless all the strands are intact.          

Religious Assimilation In Early American Fiction
John J. Salesses

In Susan Vreeland’s novel, The Forest Lover, the artistic and historical accomplishments of Emily Carr (1870-1946) are portrayed. Carr was a strongly independent woman, an amazing adventurer and painter who was born and raised in a well to do family in Victoria, British Columbia. As a young woman, she studied painting, first in London and later in Paris. Her art consists of modern and innovative representations of the rugged frontier villages and people of the Pacific Northwest, and the subject of her paintings ranges from pine trees and bear cubs to eagles and totem poles. In the novel, Halliday, a man described as “the Indian agent” expresses his concern about the First Nation People of British Columbia and their “heathenish ways, especially the potlatch,” which he describes as a Grand-Fetes lasting days. Halliday continues “Potlaching requires outlandish expenditures of money for gift-giving, encourages vanity and fantastical competition, . . . and conflicts with Indian employment in logging, agriculture, and canneries and spreads disease, sloth, rowdiness, irresponsibility, and prostitution, if ye must know.”  When asked what the alternative might be, the “Indian agent” responds, “Why assimilation, of course.”

God in American Literary History: Changing Perspectives
Stephen L. Tanner

Abstract: American literary history was transformed in the 1980s by the application of critical theory, which called into question the terms American, literary, and history from a secular, historicist perspective.  What are the implications if this secular perspective for students with religious beliefs?  In order for students to fully understand and appreciate American literature and be prepared to confront a world of increasing religious turmoil, secular teachers and scholars must respectfully take into account reasonable religious perspectives.

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The Patriotic-Pragmatic Argument: A Politically Feasible Case for Affirmative Action
Lawrence J. Hanks

This paper examines the major arguments for and against affirmative action as practiced in the U.S.  The arguments are presented, critically analyzed and rebutted.  Ultimately, this paper argues that the best politically feasible argument for affirmative action, the patriotic-pragmatic argument, focuses on empowering the U.S.’s military, educational, and economic institutions. While the traditional arguments for affirmative action focus on abstract zero-sum game scenarios largely based on issues of moral fairness and social justice, the patriotic-pragmatic argument focus on the concrete “win-win” scenarios of safety and national actualization, educational attainment, and economic prosperity

The Pervasiveness of Racial Prejudice in Higher Education in the U.S:
Raising Awareness and Solution

Justina O. Osa

Racial diversity is one of the greatest strengths of America’s higher education system. But racial prejudice is entrenched and pervasive in many campuses of institutions of higher learning. A close observation reveals that racial prejudice is not restricted to any race. As much as one would like to believe that simply passing legislations and making policy decisions designed to promote diversity and acceptance of all peoples, genuine decision to accept diversity resides on the personal or individual level. This article focuses on the pervasiveness of racial prejudice on campuses of various institutions of higher learning. The author shares her experiences in predominantly white and black institutions in the United States of America. Her experiences substantiate the view that (1) each race has some already formed assumptions, expectations, and beliefs about other races and (2) individuals who belong to the majority race often enjoy better opportunities and feel more comfortable on campus than those individuals from the minority groups.

If the American society is to enjoy the benefits of racial diversity, all individuals have a role to play in the fight against racial prejudice. In this article, the author discusses some of the characteristics of racial prejudice as manifested on campuses. She also suggests strategies to (1) raise individual awareness of one’s own beliefs regarding other races that are culturally-bound or inherited and (2) promote diversity and cultivate a positive and inclusive campus climate where all feel valued and welcome.


Apportionment and the Right to Vote “Fair and Foul”
Kenneth R. Thompson and Alex Devience

Article I of the American Constitution vests all legislative powers granted therein to a Congress which consists of two chambers:  a Senate composed of two Senators from each state elected, after 1913, by the people in statewide elections, and a House of Representatives.  The Article specifies three rules regarding the elective process of members to the House.  Section 2 provides that the number of representatives to be elected from each state shall be apportioned by Congress to the states on a population basis and that the representatives shall be chosen by the people of the several states.  Section 4 states that times, places and manner of holding elections for representatives “shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations…” 

Tenure in Higher Education:  Property Right or No Rights?
Sheila Anne Webb

One may ask, “What is tenure today with its fuzzy parameters?”  Is it a property right that a faculty member may earn and “hold” to retain employment?  To understand the issue, educators must first understand what they are tenured to.  Since the tenure process emanates from a department, are they tenured to a department or to a college or to the university?  Although professors understand that tenure status is not automatically transferred to another institution but must be earned or negotiated again if the professor changes institutions, they often never ask what they are tenured to. 

This vital question may be their demise.  Institutions that tenure faculty to departments or colleges versus the university itself, may simply dismiss all tenured faculty by eliminating or restructuring the department or college.  Collaborative administrators accomplish this through established processes and procedures often involving program review to establish productivity and programmatic need.  Procedures for this can encompass programmatic self-study reports and faculty review committees including the Academic Senate.  If groups of tenured faculty are removed from their positions through this process, benevolent administrators may offer options for the faculty such as funds for retraining personnel for needed positions in other areas of the university.  Retraining offers no guarantees since tenured faculty who have lost their positions must compete for other positions; they need to interview, and, if hired, again seek the tenure track regulations to regain tenure in a new department or college.

This paper discusses the pros and cons of tenure as well as the changing definition and frequency of tenure track positions. 







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